Mozambique agriculture photo by CIF action

Mozambique is located on the southeast coast of the African Continent, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the North, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa to the west and South Africa and Swaziland to the south. The country has a total area of 799,380 km2, which extends north to south with about 2,515 km of coastline. After a 16-year civil war that began shortly after independence from Portugal in 1975 and ended in 1992, with the signing of the Peace Agreement between the Government and political party RENAMO (Mozambican National Resistance), Mozambique achieved political and economic stability and began to experience very rapid economic growth.

With substantial assistance from international donors, the country is rebuilding its infrastructure--damaged and neglected by the war--investing in health and education, and laying the political and institutional foundations for continued economic growth. An important part of this foundation includes laws that govern land and forest use, which recognize the rights of communities while at the same time encouraging investment.

Despite the levels of growth registered after the end of the civil war, more than half of the population remains poor. The Mozambican agricultural sector consists mainly of small-scale farmers who work on small plots of land, cultivated under rainfed conditions. Most of the irrigated land is used by a small number of large commercial farmers.

Recently, significant deposits of various natural resources have been discovered, notably gas, titanium, aluminum, coal, graphite, and diamonds. Historically, mining activities were done by small-scale artisanal miners. Although the current legal framework allows and even promotes the exploitation of mineral resources by local communities, in practice, multinationals are privileged due to their capacity to generate the taxes for the government, in addition to the political and economic alliances often created.

With the consecration of national independence, all natural resources were nationalized. The first Constitution of Mozambique, adopted by the Frelimo (Liberation Front of Mozambique) Central Committee in June 1975, established the following: "... the land and the natural resources located in the soil and subsoil, in the territorial waters and on the continental shelf of Mozambique are property of the State ... [which] determines the conditions for their exploitation and use "(Article 8). Taking agriculture as the base and industry as the thedriving and decisive factor, the Government conditions for raising the standard of living of the population. It did so, however, without ever having begun a real redistribution of land, but only the transformation of private farms into state farms (Negrão, 2002).

Land tenure is theoretically safe for communities and smallholders. However, the emergence of state and private "mega-projects" in agriculture (e.g. Prosavana), forest plantations (e.g. Portucel), mining (e.g. Coal Exploitation in Tete - Vale, Gas Exploration in Palma - ENH and Anadarko), construction of public infrastructure (Maputo-Katembe Bridge, Moamba Dam, etc.) has results in the increase in the number of land conflicts between the private sector and the communities as well as between communities and the Government.

Selected indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit: 
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit: 
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number
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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit: 
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1000 Ha

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

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    Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.