Brazil has one of the most advanced legal frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC) related to the recognition of land and property rights. The 1988 Constitution, together with a series of laws and land tools [1], provide that property must serve a social function. Brazil's laws also recognize the right to adequate housing and property, both in rural and urban areas. From a legal perspective, Brazilian citizens, particularly those from vulnerable groups such as  poor people, women, indigenous and traditional populations, can now claim their land rights. Depending on whether the land is public or private, individual and collective rights to use or own land can be obtained, after a minimum period of peaceful possession. In addition, many land-related policies, such as land regularization and housing programs, also acknowledge that women should receive preference in obtaining land rights.

The situation on the ground, however, is quite different from what Brazil’s progressive legislation implies. For instance, an estimated 250,000 people have been evicted, affected or threatened of eviction in various cities, during the period leading up to the World Cup and Olympic Games [2]. The evictions occurred mainly in areas of increasing land value, such as alongside the routes to/from the airport – stadium – touristic center, due to the implementation of public infrastructure and private real estate developments. Forced and violent evictions were often reported even when families had formal property titles. Moreover, market evictions and gentrification have also occurred in many documented cases, through more “quiet” processes in comparison to the violent massive evictions mentioned above. Recurring evictions in Brazil highlight the weaknesses of decades of regularization and housing programs that focused on individual freehold titles.

Selected indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

Forest land owned by Indigenous Peoples and local communities: Forests are considered to be “owned” where communities have full legal rights to secure their claims to forests, defined in RRI’s rese

Measurement unit: 
Million ha

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

This indicator presents the score of the "Land Owership" component of the Global Open Data Index (GODI) 2016/2017. 

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 100)

This indicator measures the weghted proportion (%) of respondants who have been requested to paid a bribe, among those who contacted land services.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Naturally regenerated forest of native species (1'000 Ha), where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

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Forest land designated by governments for Indigenous Peoples and local communities: Ownership of forest land under this category remains claimed by the state but some rights have been recognized by

Measurement unit: 
Million ha

Tenure Security in Brazil

PRIndex - Perceived Tenure Security

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Property rights are a cornerstone of economic development and social justice.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

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This indicator is a sub-component of the Restricted Resources and Entitlements Indicator and measures whether women and men have equal and secure access to land use, control and ownership.

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 1)
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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Other land (1'000 Ha) is the land not classified as Agricultural land and Forest area. It includes built-up and related land, barren land, other wooded land, etc.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit: 
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1000 Ha

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

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    Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.