Colombia - Context and Land Governance | Land Portal | Securing Land Rights Through Open Data

Inequality in Colombia´s land tenure structure is among the highest in the region. 0.4% of land owners hold 41.1% of all land; the rural population with informal land tenure is 40% and the rural population is 2.5 times poorer than the population in urban areas. In addition, more than 6.3 million people are displaced by violence and or migrating. Inequities in land tenure have existed throughout the history of Colombia. This is primarily due to competing interests between small landholdings (minifundios) and large estates (latifundios); between peasants and landowners. Agrarian reform is an unresolved issue in Colombia, which is why it is one of the pillars of guerrilla movements engaged in armed conflict over the last 60 years. The consequence of these tensions is the displacement of large populations around the country. Peasants and indigenous people were dispossessed of at least 6.6 million hectares of land during the last twenty years of armed violence in the country. To address this issue, there is a policy of land restitution for victims of armed conflict, with more than 30,000 applications (2014) to gain access to at least 1.2 million hectares. The procedure for this is cumbersome and the results are still incipient, so it is a pending issue in Colombian public policy. This process goes hand in hand with the policy of recovery of unduly occupied estates. This policy is not favored by agribusiness, and even paramilitaries and sectors linked to drug trafficking are strongly opposed to it.

Despite progress, land title clearing and titling policies for peasant, Indigenous and Afro-descendant populations have been delayed in recent years. More than 50% of indigenous reserves are still waiting for the process to end in their territories.

Colombia has an important livestock sector (almost half of the productive units over 1000 hectares are in this category), and a diversified agricultural sector which produces coffee, sugar cane, flowers, cotton, banana, corn, African oil palm, rice, potato, and others. Almost all of these commodities are linked to export processes. Here, coffee plays a prominent role and in 2012 it accounted for 30% of Colombian agricultural exports, worth nearly two billion dollars.

 

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

The average score for the ten indicators of the legal security of indigenous People lands is also provided.

Measurement unit: 
Index (1; 4)

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

This indicator presents the score of the "Land Owership" component of the Global Open Data Index (GODI) 2016/2017. 

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 100)

Population living in slums is the proportion of the urban population living in slum households.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

This indicator is a sub-component of the Restricted Resources and Entitlements Indicator and measures whether women and men have equal and secure access to land use, control and ownership.

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 1)

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

This indicator measures the proportion of terrestrial protected areas as a share of the total land area in a country.

Measurement unit: 
% of total land area
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This indicator presents the score of the "Land Owership" component of the Global Open Data Index (GODI) 2016/2017. 

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 100)
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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops through cultivation or naturally (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee), land under trees and shrubs producing flowers (such as roses and jasmine), and n

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

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