Rwanda - Context and Land Governance | Land Portal
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Rwanda agriculture land governance

Rwanda is a small country and landlocked. It covers an area of 26,338 km². In Rwanda, land is an important issue due to two different characteristics: first is that Rwanda is one of the most densely populated countries in the world (416 people per km2 – (NISR, 2012). Being an agricultural country, where over 85% of its working class citizens depend on agriculture, adds more pressure on land as the sole economic capital to the rural peasants [1].

The country has had a considerable number of displacements caused by ethnic tensions both in 1959 and 1994 [2]. These displacements disrupted the relationships people had with their land and resulted in secondary occupation and successive legitimate land claims in the post conflict Rwanda [3].

In the post-conflict Rwanda, there are enormous land claims resulting from the effects of the displacements and legitimized secondary occupation. The Rwandan government thus realized that developing a long-term solution to these problems required new interest-based and right-based procedures, which not only help solve the land claims issues but also act as a catalyst for future reconciliation. As a result, these two different but related policies were adopted: land sharing and the vllagisation programme (grouped or nuclear settlement) commonly known as Imidugudu settlement.

A Broad Overview of the Basic Land Tenure System

Currently, all land in Rwanda is registered and titled [5]. With the help of development agencies, Rwanda designed and implemented a programme that registered all land over a period of less than six years. Rights of women and other vulnerable groups are protected by Rwandan land laws [6]; land co-ownership, especially for married couples, is recognized in title issuances where the names of two couples all appear on land title with an equal percentage of shares.

The country has institutionalized the land sector from the national level to the sector level. It has a stable and sustainable land administration system that is increasing the level of land governance in the country. In post-conflict Rwanda, the country had ensured many land-related problems resulting in prolonged displacements and secondary occupations that were later legitimized by the government. Rwanda thus envisaged land governance as a contributor to sustainable peace and security. In 2005, the country embarked on major land reform measures after a new national land policy was passed, new land law promulgated, and a national land office was established [7]Land transactions including the buying and selling of property have been digitized. Some land services can be obtained through a digital method.The Land law in Rwanda provides a way through which land can be acquired; these are through state-given inheritance from ascendants, buying/selling, donations and others [8].

Since 2004, Rwandan government have envisioned land reform as a sustainable solution to land claims and successive legitimate land rights that resulted from two separate waves of enormous displacements [9]. In 2004, a national land policy was established [10] followed by the Organic Law in 2005 replaced by the Law governing land in Rwanda of 2013. Through land new policy, customary holdings were recognized but they are to be converted into leaseholds from the State through the Land Tenure Regularization (LTR) programme.  This programme resulted in all land in Rwanda being titled. Customary holding in Rwanda was abolished as land registration became mandatory. It was up to the State to give land to people whose land rights had not yet been acknowledged.

 
Land Legislation

Article 29 of the Rwandan Constitution of 2003 (as amended to date) recognizes the individual right to private property ownership. This provision signifies that private property, whether individually or collectively owned, is inviolable. However, this constitutional provision also does provide an exception to the inviolability of private property. Property can be expropriated for the public interest but only upon payment of fair and prior compensation to the landowner.

Government acquisition of individual private property for public interest in Rwanda is often done through expropriation. Rwanda has an expropriation law that determines procedures for acquisition of such land for public interest [11]. The Land law in its article 34, protects private ownership rights. It stipulates that the state recognizes the right to freely own land. Thus a person’s right to individual property shall be protected from dispossession whether totally or partially without his/her consent except in case of expropriation for the public interest upon payment of agreed fair compensation.

 
Land Tenure Classification

Land tenure in Rwanda has a long history, which includes the pre-colonial era, colonial era, post-colonial (Independence era) and post-genocide era.

In the pre-colonial era, Rwandan consisted of customary two systems of land ownership that co-existed in different regions of Rwanda, that is Ubukode (lineage had right to claim the land they had cleared) practised in the Northern and the Western part of the country and Igikingi (a system of acquiring and owning from royal distribution) commonly practised in the Eastern, Southern and some parts of Western part [12]. All over the country, land rights were granted on behalf of the King and these rights were transmitted from generation to generation.

During colonial period, as Potel (2014) [13] noted, a new form of land tenure was introduced. That is formal tenure system was based principally on written laws. What is vital to note here is that this form of land tenure did nothing to protect the rights of local indigenous Rwandans but only the interests of religious institutions and colonial companies, especially mining corporations. This formal tenure went hand-in-hand with customary tenure that was enjoyed by all local people.

Similar to the colonial period, the post-colonial Rwandan land tenure security was a dual system, meaning including by formal and customary systems  throught the the country. However, formal as mostly used in urban areas where as customary in rural areas [14]. This dual system co-existed from 1962 to 2004 when Rwanda embarked on country wide land reform.

After formalization of land sector in Rwanda, there are only two types of land tenure which are leasehold and freehold. The land law defines leasehold as a long-term contract between the State and a person to exploit land in return for a periodic agreed fee payment. Freehold is a type of land tenure granting full and indefinite rights over the land [15]. All Rwandans owning land can be granted freehold title to land reserved for residential, commercial, social, cultural or scientific [16]. However, this freehold shall only be given to only developed land where infrastructures are erected and limited to only land with the area not later than 5 hectors [17].

The Rwandan land law also states that foreigners are not entitled to freehold [18].  Though for a group of individuals co-owning land, a business company, an organisation or association with legal personality, freehold title can only be granted if at least 51% of its stake is owned by Rwandan citizens, except for land designated as Special Economic Zones [19].  Special economic zones (SEZ) is a program designated to address some of the domestic private sector constraints such as availability of industrial and commercial land, availability and the cost of energy, limited transport linkages, market access and reduced bureaucracy and availability of skills. Designated, serviced land is provided for small and large scale industrial development, as well as reliable, quality infrastructure, competitive fiscal and non-fiscal regulations and streamlined administration procedures [20]. This means that if a foreigner buys land from a Rwandan that had a freehold, the land tenure is changed to leasehold that is renewable after 49 years, if that land is not located in SEZ.



 
Land Registration

Land registration in Rwanda is mandatory [21]. The land law provides that a person can register his/her land through sporadic/ voluntary or systematic land registration. Rwanda has a title registration system adopted from the Torrens system [22]. The Ministerial decree of N°002/2008 of 01/4/2008 determining modalities of land registration provides two modalities of land registration, which are systematic registration and Mandatory registration. It is important to note that, with registration of land, customary land tenure ceases to exist and land adopts new land tenure which is leasehold.

Between 2009 and 2013, Rwanda conducted a systematic land registration all over the country, where more than 10 million of parcels were registered under the Land Tenure Regularisation Program. This programme involved registration of all land holdings and issuance of the land title to its rightful claimants. For systematic registration, applications for land registration are made to the Registrar or Deputy Registrar in compliance with their competence, through the Land Officer in the district where that land is located so that s/he may verify their authenticity and completeness.

Within ten (10) working days, the District Land Officer must have transmitted the complete file to the Registrar or competent Deputy Registrar. Incomplete applications are returned to the applicants after they have received explanations. The Ministerial order in its article 12 states that the Registrar issues the certificate of registration within thirty (30) days.

In January 2016, Rwanda introduced an Integrated Electronic Case Management System, which is a web-based application that integrates five main institutions of the justice sector, throughout Kigali’s courts [23].  Among other features, the system allows for the automatic registration of lawsuits, electronic organization and scheduling of cases and automated claims processing. Rwandan authorities expect the system to result in considerable cost and time savings along with increased transparency and more reliable statistical data on court operations [24]. In addition to this, the land information system was linked to mortgage registration used by all the banks offering this service. A restriction is added in the land information database immediately after the bank has registered the mortgage.



 
Land Use Trends

The majority of Rwanda is rural and over 70% of the country’s total land surface is exploited for agriculture and livestock activities [25]. The total arable land is about 52% (1.4 million hectares) of the total surface area of the country and another 17% (0.47 million hectares) are under permanent pasture [26]. Landholdings are very small with more than 60% of households cultivating less than 0.7 hectares, 50% cultivating less than 0.5 hectares, and more than 25% cultivating less than 0.2 ha. This constraint is aggravated by the fact that most farms have multiple, scattered plots, many of them tiny. In addition to the small size of farms and plots, crops are grown on steep slopes up to and above 55% [27].

The relationship between Rwandans and their land has changed a lot after the Land Tenure Regularization Program. In Kigali City, and other urban areas outside Kigali, the land value has increased accompanied with land use shift, from agriculture to residential. Khan, et. al (2013) found that land value in Rwanda has increased and will still be the case in the coming years [27]. Fosudo (2014) explained the interconnection between the Land Tenure Regularisation Program and the land use change in Rwanda as shown in the figure 2 below [28]. He stipulated that human decisions became a major determinant for land use change through the various modifying activities associated with their tenure status.

Figure 2 Relationship between LTR and Land use change [30]

In Kigali City, the land development is monitored through the master plan developed in 2013. This document, accessible on www.masterplan2013.kigalicity.gov.rw, was developed in order to gather, harmonize and update all the previous plans. This allowed translating the broad long-term strategies into detailed land use and zoning plans to guide the urban development. The master plan is consulted before issuing the permission to do any development on the land.



 
Land Investments

The land registration process in Rwanda has increased the investment in land, more specifically in cultivating annual crops and developing new residential structures, farm structures and  business structures [31]. The law governing land in Rwanda [32] clarifies that the acquisition of land for investment shall base on an approved business plan by a competent authority in accordance with the importance and value of the investment.

In 2017, Rwanda was ranked 56th in the world and the 2nd in Africa (after Mauritius) in Doing Business [33].  Among the 190 economies included in Doing Business, the country made the largest improvement in property registration. A track procedure for commercial property transfers was introduced. This improved the transparency of the land registry by establishing a land administration services complaints mechanism and by publishing statistics on property transfers [34]. The country has an electronic portal that combines company registration, information on tax obligations and duties and value added tax registration which saves investors an average of two days and eliminating two interactions with government officials [35].



 
Land Expropriation

Expropriation is one of the techniques used to support land development and attract more investors. Expropriation is preceded by land valuation exercise where the value of the land and any development above is determined using market price. The GoR's Expropriation Law provides a list of activities leading to the expropriation in public interest (roads, public schools, hospitals, water pipes, etc) [36]. Having in the list “activities to implement land use and development master plans” may leave a room to private investment activities to be considered as public interest [37]. In this case, small land holders may be relocated in the interest of private investors, and compensated using the market value instead of them imposing prices as sellers. Some issues are observed during expropriation such as delays in compensation as reported by Legal Aid Forum (2015), though the law says 120 days from the day when the amount of compensation was determined [38]. However their data also showed that delays in payment have been decreasing in recent years and was on average falling within the allocated time. Other issues include the absence of a clear provision in the law addressing expropriation of part of a property where the law does not consider that the remaining portion may no longer be suitable for the actual or intended uses by the owner [39]. There are also variations in compensation paid by the expropriating entity, project type, and other issues. The Legal Aid Forum (2015) found that many expropriated households invest their compensation in long-term assets, or into savings if they are not required to purchase or construct a new residence for resettling [40].

 
Land Acquisition

In Rwanda, land is accessible for both Rwandans and foreigners, and the land can be acquired from/by a private person or the State. The freehold title is only granted to Rwandans, while land can be leased to both Rwandans and foreigners. The land rights may be transferred between persons through succession, gift, inheritance, ascending sharing, rent, sale, sublease, exchange, servitude, mortgage or any other transaction, in conformity with the conditions and methods provided by laws and regulations [41]. Biraro et al. (2015) found that the predominant mode of land acquisition is through sale followed by donation through umunani or inheritance [42]. Some of the reasons for acquiring land are to develop it (construct a house, agriculture or livestock investment); to save money (for those who do not wish to keep their money at the bank at a low cost and sell it later when the value has increased). Some even do not have any plan when they acquire land. This is the case of children who receive land through inheritance or as a gift from their parents (locally called umunani). Sometimes, if people are obliged to sell their land because the buyer wants to develop it in conformity with a land use plan, no special assistance is given to the owner when relocating. The buyer and the seller agree on the price and proceed with the formal registration. The seller will have to find, themselves, where to resettle. Rwanda does not have a legally binding framework for resettling persons displaced by expropriation, and many entities involved in acquisitions claim are not competent to address resettlement risks and do not have the funds available for resettlements. Many expropriated households tend to prefer receiving the cash instead [43].

 
Women's Land Rights

Article 26 of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda prescribes monogamy as the “Civil monogamous marriage between a man and a woman is the only recognized.” Article 4 of the Land Law (2013) complements the land policy and clearly prescribes the respect and recognition of land rights for men, women, and heirs without any discrimination based on sex. It states that “All forms of discrimination, that are based on sex or origin, in relation to access to land and the enjoyment of real rights shall be prohibited.” However, it continues to say that “The right to land for a man and a woman lawfully married shall depend on the matrimonial regime they opted for.” Also the inheritance and succession law talks about matrimonial regimes, liberalities and succession. It thus grants equal inheritance rights to male and female children of the deceased’s property.

The various clauses on the protection and recognition of widow and female children’s rights over land are stipulated in the new land law, land policy, inheritance law, and the national constitution. There is optimism that its implementation should increase the security of tenure for those people. The government effort to establish legal systems which protect women against land grabbing has substantially contributed to the recognition of their rights over land. 

The Land Tenure Regularisation program gave women/wives rights to be registered on land certificates with the equal percentages of rights with men/their husbands [44]. This means that land rights cannot be transferred without the prior consent of the wife in the family. The consent is provided by submitting a signed form requesting the land bureau office to transfer rights while also specifying reasons for transfer. Despite the benefits of this programme, there are still different challenges associated with the land tenure regularisation provisions, in particular for women in Rwanda. These challenges vary from societal perspectives to implementation of legal provisions.



 
Socio-Cultural Beliefs

Legally speaking, both wives and husbands have equal rights over land especially when it is registered in their names, but it is only the husband that takes a decision regarding use and dispossession of that right. This can be best explained by the case detailed below

Example 1:  Mr. Murinzi is married to Kabanyana under community of property as a matrimonial regime, they are blessed with four children, and they own two different parcels of land. One is 10 hectares and its land use is livestock and the second is 1.5 hectares and its land use is Agriculture.  Murinzi decided to sell the land claiming it to be so far away from his farm that he cnanot take care of his cattle. Kabanyana protested this decision because the land in question was near the school where their children would access education with ease and thus refused to sign. Murinzi reacted furiously and decided to chase Kabanyana from his house. The matter was later resolved by land bureau staff after Kabanyana’s relative brought up the issue.

 

While trying to mediate Murinzi and his wife, Murinzi’s main claim was that he is the owner of the land and therefore Kabanyana had no say in decision-making since she is just his wife, irrespective of the matrimonial regime. These stereotype beliefs of Murinzi are still embedded in the minds of many husbands and men in Rwanda.


 
Co-Habitating Families

These are instances where a woman is not legally married but is living together with the man and they have children. During land registration, some women managed to register themselves on the parcel and obtain land rights. However, there are many instances where men prohibited these women from being registered on their land and, thus, the land was registered under the husband as the sole proprietor. In this case, the wife may find herself landless because the husband has the right to sell the land without consulting his wife. The example of Bernard’s case best explains this:

Example 2: Mr. Bernard has been living together with Marie Claire as a wife and husband though not legally married as was narrated by their neighbours and local authority. They are blessed with two children. They own two houses, the one they live in and the other they have been renting, though they are all registered in the names of Bernard. He recently mortgaged one house in the bank and later failed to honour the debt. Due to the nature of the debt, there was auction and Marie Claire tried to stand against it but she was legally challenged by the bank, since she was not a legal wife of Bernard and thus was not supposed to be a party to the contract between the bank and Bernard. So, the two houses were both auctioned.

 

This case of cohabitation also has negative effects on a woman in case of separation because she has no legal rights to claim any portion of land. The land is registered in the man's name only.

Polygamous Marriages

As stated above, the Rwandan law only recognizes monogamous (one man one woman) as the sole legal marriage. However, experience has proven that polygamous marriage is still common in practice and the law does not provide any solution regarding the protection of women who may find themselves under this marriage. The case of Hishamunda briefly explains it:

Example 3: Hishamunda is a 45 year old man who migrated to Kayonza district from Musanze district, in the Northern Province. In response to mass mobilization campaign aimed at getting people who are not legally married to legalize their marriages, he decided also to legalize his. He was cohabitating with three wives, two were still in Northern Province and he lived with one, in Kayonza, who seemed to be the youngest. He decided to enter into matrimonial regime of community of property with the youngest wife. The remaining two wives protested this decision, because they claimed have a share in Hishamunda's property. This property includes three parcels of land in Musanze, two houses, and a parcel in Kayonza district. In trying to mediate the parties, all land was registered differently, Hishamunda himself had shared the land with his wives and he registered himself with each wife on each parcel, meaning that his name appears on the certificate for each tract of land given to each wife. Now the remaining question is: what will happen if he legalizes his marriage with one wife under community of property as he wished? This will bring conflict into the family because it legally gives the legal wife automatic rights to the land owned by other wives of Hishamunda.

 

With regard to this example of Hishamunda, it’s true that the other wives have contributed to the family wealth. This can be evidenced by the fact that he even allowed them to be registered on the property as the co-owners. However, his intention to legalize the marriage with one wife will make it difficult to transfer land rights to another woman by virtue of marriage. This will also be problematic during succession where all children will be required to succeed his father.

Rural Women's Lack of Information on Legal Rights

As field research shows, for the full enforcement of land rights and the promotion of tenure security for women, widows and female orphans, there is a need to empower women and female descendants and make them more capable of defending themselves against the practices of land grabbing and/or land deprivation. This entails giving them more training and education on their land rights as enshrined in the land laws. By observing and analysing many of the cases brought forward by rural villages to local authority, there are some cases where rights of illiterate widows and female orphans are still denied by their relatives, because those widows and female orphans are not aware about what is the status of the current laws in terms of their rights with regards to succession and inheritance. Many women think that they can have rights over land if their relatives provide them with such rights, and do not have any information about the way to claim and defend their interest in land. Thus, a grassroots mass mobilization and sensitization programme for women, widow and female children about their rights over land is still recommended.

References
This narrative was peer reviewed by Owen Edwards, Programme Analyst at Bureau for Management Services, UNDP
 

[1] Musahara, H, (2006), Improving Tenure Security for the Rural Poor, Kigali. FAO. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/faodocrepe612f9cd-9b49-569c-86ef-3c1edef9a604/improving-tenure-security-rural-poor.

[2] Prunier, G, (1997) The Rwandan crisis, 1959-1995: History of genocide. Available at: https://books.google.rw/books/about/The_Rwanda_Crisis_1959_1994.html?id=6hwCdeYHZKcC&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

[3] Ibid.

[4] Potel, J. (2014). Displacement and land administration in post conflict areas – Case of Rwanda. Msc Thesis, University of Twente, Enshede, The Netherlands. Available at: www.itc.nl/library/papers_2014/msc/la/potel.pdf.

[5] GoR (Government of Rwanda), (2013). Snapshot report on land tenure programme, Kigali, Rwanda available on http://rnra.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Snapshot_Feb_2013.pdf

[6] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2013) Law No 43/2013 of 16/06/2013 Governing Land in Rwanda, Kigali available on www.rnra.rw.

[7] Potel, J. (2014). Displacement and land administration in post conflict areas – Case of Rwanda. Msc Thesis, University of Twente, Enshede, The Netherlands available on www.itc.nl/library/papers_2014/msc/la/potel.pdf

[8] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2013) Law No 43/2013 of 16/06/2013 Governing Land in Rwanda, Kigali available on www.rnra.rw

[9] Idem (6)

[10] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2004) National Land Policy, Kigali, available on www.rnra.rw

[11] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2015) Law n° 32/2015 of 11/06/2015 relating to expropriation in the public interest, Kigali. Available at: www.rnra.rw.

[12] Musahara, H, (2006), Improving tenure security for the rural poor, Kigali, Rwanda available on http://landportal.info/library/resources/faodocrepe612f9cd-9b49-569c-86ef-3c1edef9a604/improving-tenure-security-rural-poor.

[13] Potel, J. (2014). Displacement and land administration in post conflict areas – Case of Rwanda. Msc Thesis, University of Twente, Enshede, The Netherlands. Available at: www.itc.nl/library/papers_2014/msc/la/potel.pdf.

[14] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2004) National Land Policy, Kigali, available on www.rnra.rw.

[15] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2013) Law No 43/2013 of 16/06/2013 Governing Land in Rwanda, Kigali available on www.rnra.rw

[16] Ibid.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Potel, J. (2014). Displacement and land administration in post conflict areas – Case of Rwanda. Msc Thesis, University of Twente, Enshede, The Netherlands. Available at: www.itc.nl/library/papers_2014/msc/la/potel.pdf.

[19] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2011)  Law n°05/2011 of regulating special economic zones in Rwanda available on http://businessprocedures.rdb.rw/media/SEZ%20Law_1.pdf.

[20] Rwanda Development Board (2017). Available at: http://www.rdb.rw/departments/sez-and-exports/special-economic-zone.html.

[21] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2013) Law No 43/2013 of 16/06/2013 Governing Land in Rwanda, Kigali. Available at www.rnra.rw.

[22] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2004) National Land Policy, Kigali, available on www.rnra.rw

[23] World Bank (2017). Doing Business 2017: Equal opportunity to all. Comparing business regulation  for domestic firms in 190 economies. A World Bank Group Flagship Report. 14th Edition. Washington DC, USA available on http://www.doingbusiness.org/~/media/WBG/DoingBusiness/Documents/Annual-...

[24] Ibid.

[25] MINAGRI (Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources)  (2009) Strategic Plan for the Transformation of Agriculture in Rwanda Phase II, Final Report, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources available on www.minagri.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/RWANDA_SAKSS/PSTA_II__2008-12_.pdf

[26] Ibid.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Khan, S.; Dr.Lengoiboni, M.; Kanyiginya, V.; Prof. Kiema, J. B.; Tumusherure, W. & and Prof. Rashid, M. H. (2014). Land Market Values, Urban Land Policies, and their Impacts in Urban Centers of Rwanda. INES Ruhengeri in collaboration with USAID LAND Project, Rwanda available on www.rwanda-land.org/en/landresearchanddata/land-markets.

[29] Fosudo, O.P. (2014). Land Tenure Regularisation in Rwanda: the outcome for agricultural land use change in peri-urban Kigali, MSc Thesis, University of Twente, The Netherlands available on www.itc.nl/library/papers_2014/msc/la/fosudo.pdf.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Biraro, M.; Khan, S.; Konguka, G.; Ngabo, V.; Kanyiginya, V.; Tumusherure, W. & Potel, J. (2015). Final Report of Study on the access to the land tenure administration system in Rwanda and the outcomes of the system on ordinary citizens. INES Ruhengeri in collaboration with USAID LAND Project. Kigali, Rwanda. Available at:  www.rwanda-land.org/en/landresearchanddata/land-administration.

[32] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2013) Law No 43/2013 of 16/06/2013 Governing Land in Rwanda, Kigali available on www.rnra.rw.

[33] World Bank (2017). Doing Business 2017: Equal opportunity to all. Comparing business regulation  for domestic firms in 190 economies. A World Bank Group Flagship Report. 14th Edition. Washington DC, USA available on http://www.doingbusiness.org/~/media/WBG/DoingBusiness/Documents/Annual-Reports/English/DB17-Full-Report.pdf

[34] Ibid.

[35] Ibid.

[36] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2015) Law n° 32/2015 of 11/06/2015 relating to expropriation in the public interest, Kigali. Available at: www.rnra.rw

[37] Ikirezi, M.; Dr. Masengo, F. & Knox, A. (2014). Implementation of Expropriation Law in Rwanda: Challenges and Ways Forward, USAID LAND Project Policy Research Brief No.2, Kigali, Rwanda. Available at: https://landportal.info/library/resources/usaid-land-tenure-policy-research-brief-no-2-rwanda.

[38] Legal Aid Forum.  (2015). The Implementation of Rwanda’s Expropriation Law and Outcomes on the Population: Final Report. Kigali, Rwanda: USAID | LAND Project. Available at: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00M1KS.pdf.

[39] Ibid.

[40] Ibid.

[41] GoR (Government of Rwanda) (2013) Law No 43/2013 of 16/06/2013 Governing Land in Rwanda, Kigali available on www.rnra.rw.

[42] Biraro, M.; Khan, S.; Konguka, G.; Ngabo, V.; Kanyiginya, V.; Tumusherure, W. & Potel, J. (2015). Final Report of Study on the access to the land tenure administration system in Rwanda and the outcomes of the system on ordinary citizens. INES Ruhengeri in collaboration with USAID LAND Project. Kigali, Rwanda. Available at: www.rwanda-land.org/en/landresearchanddata/land-administration.

[43] Legal Aid Forum.  (2015). The Implementation of Rwanda’s Expropriation Law and Outcomes on the Population: Final Report. Kigali, Rwanda: USAID | LAND Project available on http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00M1KS.pdf.

[44] Polavaraput., A. (2014), Procuring Meaningful Land Rights for the Women of Rwanda available on http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

Incidence of agricultural landowners (female only - share%) according to the FAO Land and Gender database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - not formally recognised by the State - as a percentage of the country's total land area.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops through cultivation or naturally (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Population living in slums is the proportion of the urban population living in slum households.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

This indicator is a sub-component of the Restricted Resources and Entitlements Indicator and measures whether women and men have equal and secure access to land use, control and ownership.

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 1)
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This indicator is a sub-component of the Restricted Resources and Entitlements Indicator and measures whether women and men have equal and secure access to land use, control and ownership.

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 1)
Loading chart...

This indicator measures the weghted proportion (%) of respondants who have been requested to paid a bribe, among those who contacted land services.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)
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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee), land under trees and shrubs producing flowers (such as roses and jasmine), and n

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops through cultivation or naturally (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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