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Zambia has a bifurcated land tenure system which results from a legacy of colonial land administration [1][2]. Under the British governor in 1928, Zambian land was divided into crown land and reserve native land [3][4]. Later in 1947 the Native Trust Order was passed which gave birth to trust land [4]. Crown land made up 6 percent of the country, while native and trust land both totalled up to 94 percent [1]. After independence, crown land was converted to state land. Reserve native and trust land remained as such until the 1995 Land Act at which point these tenure types began being labeled as "customary" land [4]. The Land Acquisition Act of 1970 inspired the ‘zambianisation’ (nationalisation) program, which sealed the deal of the 1975 Land (Conversion of Titles) Act that halted freehold tenure system in Zambia [4]. All land in Zambia has since then been vested in the President, who holds it in perpetuity on behalf of the Zambian people [3].

The Lands Act 1995 allowed for conversion of customary land into leasehold titles, thereby creating land markets and causing a surge in land transactions in the country [5]. Consequently, through a Presidential Decree passed in 2002, it became possible to establish farm blocks on customary land in nine provinces. Currently, there are major issues plaguing land governance in Zambia, including cases of uncontrolled and ungoverned customary land allocations [6], corruption in urban land allocation, and political cadreism in land allocation in both urban and peri-urban and rural areas [7]. Exogenous factors such as those underpinning large scale land acquisition (LSLAs) and the evolution of customary practices in response to socio-economic national dynamics put pressure on land and related resources. This compromises management regimes of customary land in the country. Land-based investments, such as the US$8billion Smart Resort City by Sirpryze Continental Zambia Limited planned on over 40,000ha in Senior Chief Kalasa Mukoso’s chiefdom in Luapula province [8], continue to pose threat on local communities. These investments also threaten local enterprising individuals such as John Mulenga [9] who has been working hard to build an agri-business that has been hailed by the Zambia National Farmers Union.           

 

Selected indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Forest land administered by governments: This category includes all forest land that is legally claimed as exclusively belonging to the state.

Measurement unit: 
Million ha

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - formally recognised by the State - as a percentage of the country's total land area.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

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Share (%) of Forest Land with respect to the Total Land Area.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage

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It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha
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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit: 
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1000 Ha

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