The chapter describes some of the political challenges involved in managing the transition from emergency activities to longer-term 'developmental' policies in Rwanda and Burundi. In post-genocide Rwanda, uncompensated expropriation and a nationwide settlement policy may have reduced short-term problems over secondary occupation of property, but have created lingering grievances. International agencies have underplayed the role of state agency in their analysis of these problems. In post-confl ict Burundi, many actors view the challenges through a return-focused lens, which fails to recognize the structural dimensions of land disputes. Despite widespread awareness of the importance of land issues, the government and UN agencies have been slow to address them. The implications for programmes dealing with post-confl ict land issues in other countries are discussed. The chapter concludes that humanitarian agencies cannot afford to work according to narrow, technical viewpoints and mandates. Awareness of historical and political dimensions, and support for monitoring, are vital.
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