Villagers in Kinywang’anga celebrate the completion of land registration efforts in their community. USAID

Land has played a critical role in Tanzania’s development. Current land tenure frameworks, issues and conflicts in the country have historical roots dating back to the pre-colonial period. The periods of German and British rule were also formative in establishing current land sector rules and challenges, as has been the post-independence period. During the pre-colonial period, all land was owned communally and all members of the community had equal access. When the Tanganyika was under German Colonial rule (1891-1919), there were three types of land tenure: freehold titles created out of conveyance, leasehold granted by the emperor and customary tenure for natives. When the British took over (1919-1961), they recognized existing German laws and put in place new land laws such as the Land Ordinance of 1923. After independence, freehold titles were converted into government leases and later rights of occupancy.

Learn more about successes and challenges and find more detailed land governance data in Tanzania.

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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What we do

We are reminded on a daily basis that the natural environment in which we live is vitally important for our well-being, whether it is in the form of climate change, global warming, declining fertility or dwindling natural resources.

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University or Research Institution

The Environment for Development (EfD) Initiative is a capacity building program in environmental economics focusing on research, policy interaction, and academic programs. The overall objective of EfD is to support poverty alleviation and sustainable development by building environmental economics capacity in policy making processes.

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Non Governmental organization

GWI in East Africa is led by CARE International. By working in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda – and more widely across East Africa – GWI in East Africa focuses on developing evidence that highlights solutions to the challenges of water management and use in smallholder agriculture.

Intergovernmental or Multilateral organization

Tanzania Online is a gateway to information on development issues in Tanzania. It is an initiative to address problems faced by Government officials, policy makers, private sector, civil society, donor community, researchers and academicians accessing information on development issues in Tanzania. Initial funding of the initiative was provided by the UN System (through a Swedish Grant) and the Tanzanian Government. ESRF was selected to implement it

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