China - Context and Land Governance | Land Portal
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By Larry Quiang, orginally published in Flickr

By Daniel Hayward and peer-reviewed by Xiaobo Hua, from Kyoto University.


It is hard to overstate the economic miracle that has transpired in China over the last 40 years, taking it from a poor developing country to one with upper middle-income status [1]. Using World Bank data [2], the average growth rate of GDP between 1978 and 2018 was 9.5%. China is now the world’s second largest economy, and the largest trading country in the world, with both significant import and export industries.

The transition has seen the adaptation of a centrally planned economy to allow for private enterprise and capital, with 60% of GDP now produced in the private sector, albeit one closely tied to state actors. It is a shift that is mirrored in formal land tenure.

There is a dual system with state-owned land in urban areas, and farmer collective-owned land in rural areas [3, 4]. During an initial period of collectivisation in the time of Mao Zedong, there was little incentive to maximise production potential. To rectify this situation, the public system has commodified land use rights in order to accommodate foreign and private sector investment [5].

Yet development has come at the cost of growing wealth inequality [6]. There is disparity between coastal provinces and cities, which were best positioned to take advantage from policies opening up the economy, and other regions. A gap has also increased between urban and rural populations, with the dual land use rights system acting as one contributory factor [7].

A challenge remains to balance food security and environmental protections against intensive urban and industrial growth, made all the more complex through a bureaucratic system with competing interests between horizontal and vertical levels of governance. 19% of the world’s population must be fed using only 6% of its total land area. As of 2020, the population of China is more than 1.4 billion people.

In December 2019, COVID-19 was first detected in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province. Strict lockdown policies, with door-to-door health checks were enforced. As China continues to contain the virus, the long term effect on freedom of movement, production systems, food security, and socio-economic well-being remains to be seen. This includes the ability of land markets to ride a period of economic depression, how legislation on usage rights might adapt to protect food sovereignty and stimulate investment, and the overall impact on socio-economic inequality.

 

Land Legislation and Regulations

The fourth Chinese Constitution was adopted in 1982, and has been revised five times since. Article 10 lays out a dual-system of land ownership, where:

Land in cities is owned by the state. Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives … The State may, in the public interest and in accordance with the provisions of law, expropriate or requisition land for its use and shall make compensation for the land expropriated or requisitioned. No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or unlawfully transfer land in other ways. The right to the use of the land may be transferred in accordance with the law. All organizations and individuals using land must ensure its rational use.

Following the formation of the People’s Republic in 1949, private ownership was abolished and production controlled through a centrally planned economy. During the 1950s, extensive land reform led to the basic dual system of state-owned urban land and collective-owned rural land. However, with productivity low, the post-Mao era introduced land markets through usage rights. In rural areas, the 1978 Household Responsibility System allowed collectives to contract use of agricultural land to individual households, who could keep or sell any surplus output [8, 9]. In 1983, the rural commune system was replaced by a township and village system, allowing non-agricultural activities and resulting in a high demand for its corresponding land.

In urban areas, the 1986 Land Management Law allowed the transfer of urban land usage rights for commercial usage, either allocated to state-owned or non-profit users or granted to commercial operators [10, 11]. This commercialisation of usage rights was recognised in a revision to the Constitution in 1988, with the private sector given a greater role in economic restructuring from then on. The State Land Administration Bureau was established to register and regulate land transactions and conversions. In 1998, the Land Management Law was amended to protect farmland against conversion to construction land and counter the threat to food security [12]. Governments at all tiers are responsible for contributing to annual land utilisation plans, and any development must conform to these plans.

 

Land Tenure Classifications

Land ownership is held by the state or rural collectives. As a result, households or individuals are only able to obtain usage rights under a leasehold agreement [13]. It is possible to own residential property as freehold but not the land upon which it lies. The maximum usage rights for urban housing including its land is 70 years, industrial purposes 50 years, welfare services (e.g. education, culture and health) 50 years, and commercial, tourist and recreation purposes 40 years [14]. However, the 2007 Property Rights Law states that urban residential rights will be automatically renewed when expiring, although there are few details as to how this stipulation can be implemented.

China has an extensive system of land classification with twelve categories (including cropland, forestland and residential land), and 57 sub-categories [15]. The 1988 revision to the Constitution legitimised the commercialisation of land use rights, so that in urban areas state land can either be allocated to state-owned or non-profit users for a small fee, or granted to commercial users. The costs for the latter are market-related, and the usage rights can be used as collateral, leased, or sold. Allocated land cannot be transferred (apart from re-acquisition by the state), but can be granted for commercial use by giving compensation (difference in fees) to the state.

In the countryside, the Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas (2002) confirms that usage rights for farmers stand at 30 years and are extendable [16]. Rural collective committees can allocate land for construction related to public welfare, township and village enterprises, or housing. However, any allocation must conform to annual land use plans, and seek approval from the State Land Administration Bureau. To further protect farmland, the 1988 Land Management Law was amended where each province must allocate and retain 80% of arable land [17]. Since 2006, there exists state ‘red line’ policy to maintain 120 million hectares of farmland [18, 19].

 

Land Use Trends

Different datasets tell us different stories on land use in China, and it is useful to set them out for comparison. Accounting for a total area of 9.6 million square km [20], the 2019 Chinese Statistical Yearbook, which defines land through its domestic classification, identifies 69.1% designated for agricultural use and 4.2% for construction, the rest presumably representing unused land [21]. Although urban land is included within the construction category, actual usage may not strictly follow this categorisation. According to land use figures in FAOSTAT for 2017, agricultural land takes up 56.1% of the total country area, forest cover at 22.1% and other land, including areas of construction and industrial complexes, at 21.8% [22]. Further, following data from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, by 2020 61.4% of the population will live in urban areas of the country, compared to 19.4% in 1980 [23, 24]. This population shift to urban areas accelerated after 1984, when internal migration regulations relaxed and rural peoples could seek employment in non-farm work [25]. The commercialisation of usage rights has release large amounts of capital to promote the resulting rapid urbanisation [26].

Tensions remain behind the retention of vital agricultural land to feed a huge population in a core socialist frame of public control over resources, and a desire to exploit its conversion into capital-generating developments. To stem extensive developments, at different moments moratoria have been placed on agricultural land conversion, most significantly from 1997-9 [27]. A further squeeze on land sees a rural population moving to work in urban areas but keeping their homes and agricultural land in rural areas, thereby ‘hollowing out’ the countryside [28]. Nevertheless, between 2003 and 2015, over 11.5 million hectares of agricultural land were developed for non-farm uses [29].

 

Land Investments and Acquisitions in China

China is well known as an investor in land-related deals outside the country, reaching as far as Africa and South America. Yet just as significant have been the attempts to stimulate domestic investment. From the 1980s onwards, led by the 1982 Constitution and subsequent revisions, land legislation has been adapted to allow domestic and foreign investors access to land use rights [30, 31]. Urban land use rights can be sold, transferred, and leased in the urban land market, while rural land use rights are more restricted so as to favour agricultural use, as clarified in the Land Administration Law [32]. There are three main areas of development permitted in rural areas: residential plots for farmers, land used for public facilities, and land used for township or collective enterprises. Since the beginning of the 1980s, special status has been conferred to various regions to further stimulate investment. The island of Hainan has been designated a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) at provincial level, while there are five SEZs at city level in Fujian, Guangdong and Xinjiang Provinces. There are also 14 Open Coastal Cities and numerous areas inland designated as free-trade zones, technological development zones, or industrial development zones.

Land legislation has resulted in the setting up of secondary markets [33]. Urban usage rights can be used as collateral, rented out, and transferred to others. Via the Household Production Responsibility System, agricultural land can be contracted out to other users, an activity in which agricultural households and farmers themselves can participate. Land titling projects have been conducted around the country since 2008 [34]. In 2019, ‘three rights separation’ policy was enacted, leading to a trifurcation of farmland rights (ownership, right to contract land, right to manage land) [35, 36, 37]. Farmers can now transfer the rights to manage land in an attempt to improve productivity and free agrarian households to participate in diversified economic activities.

Agricultural land can be expropriated for public use, with ownership transferred to the state. As a result, many communities have undergone compulsory relocation to make way for large-scale government projects [38]. There have been complaints about a rural population receiving insufficient compensation in such cases, since local governments have monopoly on urban land conversions and transfers, and can acquire land cheaply from farmers before selling to developers [39, 40]. As a result, the private market in land usage rights has led to uncontrollable land development, and a growth in peasant landlessness [41, 42]. Various countermeasures have been installed as a result. These include State Council Regulations and the Urban Real Estate Law in 1994, brought in to regulate real estate markets, moratoria on arable land conversion, and a revision of the Land Management Law in 1998 [43, 44]. Despite these measures, there remains a risk that market consolidation and increased landlessness may contribute to increases in inequality.

There is evidence around illegal acquisition and development on collective land, becoming a serious source of social discontent [45, 46, 47]. Official statistics show that between 1995 and 2002, there were almost a million known cases of illegal land occupation and transaction, involving 189,000 hectares [48]. Following reform of the tax distribution system in 1994, revenue shortages at the level of local government resulted in a dependency on land sales to increase funds [49, 50]. A black market in land occupation and conversion prevails, particularly in the vicinity of popular urban areas where demand is at its strongest. In 2013, the state promised to better protect land use rights, improve compensation packages and increase the rural voice over negotiations for rural construction land. There are provisions on dispute resolution mechanisms within the Land Management Law and Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas, but on the whole local political actors have been able to activate legislation better than affected farmers. Meanwhile, the government has paid more attention to stopping disputes arising in the first place, such as through placing approval mechanisms at the provincial level [51].

 

Women’s Land Rights

The legal framework of China has enshrined gender equality, most clearly positioned in the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women (1992, revised 2005 and 2018), also known as the Women’s Act. There are various women’s organisations throughout the country, of which the most prominent is the All-China Women’s Federation. Since 1995, there have been three phases of a Program for the Development of Chinese Women promoting activities of political participation, labour, health, education, and equality of rights. 

In specific legal terms, article 48 of the 1982 Constitution states that women enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life including politics, economy, culture, society and family. Although the Property Rights Law (2007) contains no specific stipulations on gender, the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women (1992) declares equal rights for women and men over property (article 28 and 44), ownership relations (article 29), and farmland and residential plots (article 30) [52]. The Law of Succession (1985) proclaims equal gender rights in inheritance (article 9), and the Agriculture Law (1993) confirms this in the case of rural land use rights (article 13). The Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas (2003) states that arable land is contracted to the household and remains so regardless of the death of any individual within that household (article 31). A 2018 amendment to this law states that women’s names will be registered on land certificates and not just the head of the household, most commonly a man. China has also signed and ratified international gender-related conventions, including CEDAW and CEDAW-OP.

As a result of the legal framework, men and women theoretically share land use rights provided to households in rural areas. However, when a woman marries she predominantly relocates to live with her husband, and so may relinquish any land allocated to her in the natal village along with inheritance rights to land from her parents. If divorced from her husband, a woman may find herself disenfranchised, losing rights to land in the conjugal village as well as no longer possessing rights at the natal village. Men still hold most of the political positions in China, and so despite the presence of many women’s organisations, power lies under a patriarchy.

Due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, many men have migrated to work in cities, frequently leaving women and the elderly in the countryside [53]. Although not an exclusive pattern, this has led to feminisation of agriculture where women have taken a greater role as labour and in the management of farms [54].

 

Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Tenure (VGGT) in China

As a core FAO partner and key institutional language, the VGGT was translated directly into Chinese on its initial publication in 2012 [55]. Supporting guides have also been translated, including the technical guide for investors operating on agricultural land, and how to safeguard land tenure rights in the contract of agricultural investment. National workshops have been held for all stakeholder groups in China, raising awareness on the voluntary guidelines and stimulating discussion to improve governance. FAO has also been working with China in terms of its outbound investments in Africa.

 

Timeline - milestones in China's land governace
1949     Formation of the People’s Republic of China

Following its establishment, private ownership was abolished and production controlled through a centrally planned economy

1978     Promulgation of Household Responsibility System 

Allows collectives to contract use of agricultural land to individual households, who could keep or sell any surplus output

1986     Promulgation of Land Management Law 

Allowed the transfer of urban land usage rights for commercial usage by state-owned, non-profit or private sector operators

2018     40 years of GDP growth at an average 9.5% per annum

A remarkable transition from a poor developing country, placing China as the world’s second largest economy

2019     ‘Three rights separation’ policy enacted

Farmland rights are trifurcated into the right to ownership, contract land, and manage land, in an attempt to improve productivity and free agrarian households to participate in diversified economic activities

2020     Population over 1.4 billion people

19% of the world’s population are found in China

2020     61.4% of the population living in urban areas

This compares to 19.4% in 1980

 

 

Where to go next?

The author's suggestion for further reading

There are a number of special journal issues, which focus on aspects of land in China. Volume 40 of Land Use Policy from 2014 contains 17 articles, such as in Key issues of land use in China and implications for policy making by Yansui Liu, Fang Fang, and Yuheng Li [56]. Volume 74 from 2018 has 31 articles and focuses on land use and rural sustainability, including Land titling program and farmland rental market participation in China: Evidence from pilot provinces by Yahui Wang, Xiubin Li, Wei Li, and Minghong Tan [57]. In the Journal of Agrarian Change, volume 15, issue 3, concerns agrarian change in contemporary China, with the article Land Transfer and the Pursuit of Agricultural Modernization in China by Jingzhong Ye [58]. A further article of interest reviewing agricultural change is Synthesis of agricultural land system change in China over the past 40 years by Zhanli Sun, Liangzhi You, and Daniel Müller [59]. For a detailed analysis of the 2019 ‘three rights separation’ policy, we recommend consulting the paper Reconstruction of China’s Farmland Rights System Based on the ‘Trifurcation of Land Rights’ Reform [60].

 

*** References

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[2] World Bank. (2020). World Bank Open Data. The World Bank: Working for a World Free of Poverty. https://data.worldbank.org/

[3] Huang, D., Huang, Y., Zhao, X., & Liu, Z. (2017). How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing. Sustainability, 9(1), 123. https://landportal.org/library/resources/httpsdoiorg103390su9010123/how-...

[4] Liu, Y., Fang, F., & Li, Y. (2014). Key issues of land use in China and implications for policy making. Land Use Policy, 40, 6–12.

[5] Lin, G. C. S., & Ho, S. P. S. (2005). The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(2), 411–436.

[6] UNDP, China Institute for Development Planning, & State Information Center. (2019). National Human Development Report 2019: China. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the China Institute for Development Planning at Tsinghua University, and the State Information Center. https://landportal.org/library/resources/china-national-human-developmen...

[7] Liu, Y., Fang, F., & Li, Y. (2014). Key issues of land use in China and implications for policy making. Land Use Policy, 40, 6–12.

[8] UNDP, China Institute for Development Planning, & State Information Center. (2019). National Human Development Report 2019: China. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the China Institute for Development Planning at Tsinghua University, and the State Information Center. https://landportal.org/library/resources/china-national-human-developmen...

[9] Ye, J. (2015). Land Transfer and the Pursuit of Agricultural Modernization in China. Journal of Agrarian Change, 15(3), 314–337. https://landportal.org/library/resources/httpsdoiorg101111joac12117/land...

[10] FAO. (2020). Gender and Land Rights Database Country Profiles. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/gender-landrights-database/country-profiles/en/

[11] Yuan, Z. (2004). Land Use Rights in China. Cornell Real Estate Review, 3, 73–78. https://landportal.org/library/resources/land-use-rights-china

[12] Liu, Y., Fang, F., & Li, Y. (2014). Key issues of land use in China and implications for policy making. Land Use Policy, 40, 6–12.

[13] Real Estate Review, 3, 73–78. https://landportal.org/library/resources/land-use-rights-china

[14] Zhang, L. (2015). China: Real Property Law (p. 7). The Law Library of Congress, Global Legal Research Center. https://landportal.org/library/resources/china-real-property-law

[15] Guo, X., Chang, Q., Liu, X., Bao, H., Zhang, Y., Tu, X., Zhu, C., Lv, C., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Multi-dimensional eco-land classification and management for implementing the ecological redline policy in China. Land Use Policy, 74, 15–31.

[16] FAO. (2020). Gender and Land Rights Database Country Profiles. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/gender-landrights-database/country-profiles/en/

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[18] Sun, Z., You, L., & Müller, D. (2018). Synthesis of agricultural land system change in China over the past 40 years. Journal of Land Use Science, 13(5), 473–479. https://landportal.org/library/resources/issn-1747-423x-doi-101080174742...

[19] Ye, J. (2015). Land Transfer and the Pursuit of Agricultural Modernization in China. Journal of Agrarian Change, 15(3), 314–337. https://landportal.org/library/resources/httpsdoiorg101111joac12117/land...

[20] World Bank. (2020). World Bank Open Data. The World Bank: Working for a World Free of Poverty. https://data.worldbank.org/

[21] National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2019). China Statistical Yearbook 2019. China Statistical Press. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2019/indexeh.htm

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[25] UNDP, China Institute for Development Planning, & State Information Center. (2019). National Human Development Report 2019: China. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the China Institute for Development Planning at Tsinghua University, and the State Information Center. https://landportal.org/library/resources/china-national-human-developmen...

[26] Liu, S. (2019). The structure and changes of China’s land system. China Agricultural Economic Review, 11(3), 471–488. https://landportal.org/library/resources/issn-1756-137x/structure-and-ch...

[27] Lin, G. C. S., & Ho, S. P. S. (2005). The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(2), 411–436.

[28] Liu, Y., Fang, F., & Li, Y. (2014). Key issues of land use in China and implications for policy making. Land Use Policy, 40, 6–12.

[29] Liu, S. (2019). The structure and changes of China’s land system. China Agricultural Economic Review, 11(3), 471–488.

[30] Lin, G. C. S., & Ho, S. P. S. (2005). The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(2), 411–436.

[31] Yuan, Z. (2004). Land Use Rights in China. Cornell Real Estate Review, 3, 73–78. https://landportal.org/library/resources/land-use-rights-china

[32] Huang, D., Huang, Y., Zhao, X., & Liu, Z. (2017). How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing. Sustainability, 9(1), 123. https://landportal.org/library/resources/httpsdoiorg103390su9010123/how-...

[33] Huang, D., Huang, Y., Zhao, X., & Liu, Z. (2017). How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing. Sustainability, 9(1), 123. https://landportal.org/library/resources/httpsdoiorg103390su9010123/how-...

[34] Wang, Y., Li, X., Li, W., & Tan, M. (2018). Land titling program and farmland rental market participation in China: Evidence from pilot provinces. Land Use Policy, 74, 281–290.

[35] Li, L., Tan, R., & Wu, C. (2020). Reconstruction of China’s Farmland Rights System Based on the ‘Trifurcation of Land Rights’ Reform. Land, 9(2), 51. https://landportal.org/library/resources/103390land9020051/reconstructio...

[36] >Sun, Z., You, L., & Müller, D. (2018). Synthesis of agricultural land system change in China over the past 40 years. Journal of Land Use Science, 13(5), 473–479. https://landportal.org/library/resources/issn-1747-423x-doi-101080174742...

[37] Xu, Y., Huang, X., Bao, H. X. H., Ju, X., Zhong, T., Chen, Z., & Zhou, Y. (2018). Rural land rights reform and agro-environmental sustainability: Empirical evidence from China. Land Use Policy, 74, 73–87.

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[39] >Huang, D., Huang, Y., Zhao, X., & Liu, Z. (2017). How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing. Sustainability, 9(1), 123.

[40] Lin, G. C. S., & Ho, S. P. S. (2005). The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(2), 411–436.

[41] Liu, Y., Fang, F., & Li, Y. (2014). Key issues of land use in China and implications for policy making. Land Use Policy, 40, 6–12.

[42] Ye, J. (2015). Land Transfer and the Pursuit of Agricultural Modernization in China. Journal of Agrarian Change, 15(3), 314–337. https://landportal.org/library/resources/httpsdoiorg101111joac12117/land...

[43] Lin, G. C. S., & Ho, S. P. S. (2005). The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(2), 411–436.

[44] Yuan, Z. (2004). Land Use Rights in China. Cornell Real Estate Review, 3, 73–78. https://landportal.org/library/resources/land-use-rights-china

[45] Bertelsmann Stiftung. (2018). BTI 2018 Country Report China. Bertelsmann Stiftung. https://landportal.org/library/resources/bti-2020-country-report-china

[46] Huang, D., Huang, Y., Zhao, X., & Liu, Z. (2017). How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing. Sustainability, 9(1), 123.

[47] Lin, G. C. S., & Ho, S. P. S. (2005). The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(2), 411–436.

[48] Lin, G. C. S., & Ho, S. P. S. (2005). The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(2), 411–436.

[49] UNDP, China Institute for Development Planning, & State Information Center. (2019). National Human Development Report 2019: China. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the China Institute for Development Planning at Tsinghua University, and the State Information Center. https://landportal.org/library/resources/china-national-human-developmen...

[50] Ye, J. (2015). Land Transfer and the Pursuit of Agricultural Modernization in China. Journal of Agrarian Change, 15(3), 314–337. https://landportal.org/library/resources/httpsdoiorg101111joac12117/land...

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[54] de Brauw, A., Huang, J., & Rozelle, S. (2012). The Feminization of Agriculture with Chinese Characteristics. IFPRI: International Food Policy Research Institute (No. 1; IFPRI Discussion Paper). https://landportal.org/library/resources/126960/feminization-agriculture...

[55] FAO (2012). Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (Chinese version). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. https://landportal.org/library/resources/isbn-978-92-5-507277-2/voluntar...

[56] Liu, Y., Fang, F., & Li, Y. (2014). Key issues of land use in China and implications for policy making. Land Use Policy, 40, 6–12.

[57] Wang, Y., Li, X., Li, W., & Tan, M. (2018). Land titling program and farmland rental market participation in China: Evidence from pilot provinces. Land Use Policy, 74, 281–290.

[58] Ye, J. (2015). Land Transfer and the Pursuit of Agricultural Modernization in China. Journal of Agrarian Change, 15(3), 314–337. https://landportal.org/library/resources/httpsdoiorg101111joac12117/land...

[59] Sun, Z., You, L., & Müller, D. (2018). Synthesis of agricultural land system change in China over the past 40 years. Journal of Land Use Science, 13(5), 473–479. https://landportal.org/library/resources/issn-1747-423x-doi-101080174742...

[60] Li, L., Tan, R., & Wu, C. (2020). Reconstruction of China’s Farmland Rights System Based on the ‘Trifurcation of Land Rights’ Reform. Land, 9(2), 51.

 

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal dis

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 100)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is calculated as the average of three indicators, the proportion of the population that is undernourished (Undernourishment), the proportion of underweight children un

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 100)

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Total funding (US $) for programmes still ongoing. Last updated on the 31st of January, 2019.

Measurement unit: 
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing. Last updated on the 31st of January, 2019.

Measurement unit: 
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)
Loading chart...

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit: 
Number
Loading pie chart

Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops through cultivation or naturally (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee), land under trees and shrubs producing flowers (such as roses and jasmine), and n

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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