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Intergovernmental Authority on Development
Intergovernmental Authority on Development
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IGAD: its history and development

The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Eastern Africa was created in 1996 to supersede the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) which was founded in 1986 to mitigate the effects of the recurring severe droughts and other natural disasters that resulted in widespread famine, ecological degradation and economic hardship in the region. Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda - took action through the United Nations to establish the intergovernmental body for development and drought control in their region. Eritrea became the seventh member after attaining independence in 1993 and in 2011 South Sudan joined IGAD as the eighth member state.

With the new emerging political and socio-economic challenges, the assembly of Heads of State and Government, meeting in Addis Ababa in April 1995, resolved to revitalize IGADD and expand areas of cooperation among Member States. The new and revitalized IGAD was launched during the 5th Summit of IGAD Assembly of Heads of State and Government held on 25-26 November 1996 in Djibouti. The Summit endorsed the decision to enhance regional cooperation in three priority areas of food security and environmental protection, economic cooperation, regional integration and social development peace and security.

IGAD Vision and Mission Statements

The founding leaders of IGAD were motivated by a vision where the people of the region would develop a regional identity, live in peace and enjoy a safe environment alleviating poverty through appropriate and effective sustainable development programmes. The IGAD Secretariat as the executive body of the Authority was given the mandate to achieve this goal.

Vision: IGAD to be the premier Regional Economic Community (REC) for achieving peace and sustainable development in the region.

Mission: Promote regional cooperation and integration to add value to Member States’ efforts in achieving peace, security and prosperity.



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Namibia - Governance and Economic Recovery Support Program - Phase II (GERSP-II)


The proposed operation is for an ADB Loan of Two billion three hundred million South African Rand (2.3 billion ZAR), to the Republic of Namibia to finance the second Phase of the Governance and Economic Recovery Support Program (GERSP II). The GERSP is designed as a programmatic series of two consecutive General Budget Support (GBS) operations covering the fiscal years 2021/22-2022/23 for total indicative financing of 3.8 billion Rand. This second phase follows Board approval of the first phase on 17 March 2021 for an amount of 1.5 billion Rand and subsequent implementation of the related program measures. The processing of this second phase of the operation (GERSP II) was made possible by the satisfactory implementation of the first phase in accordance with the Bank's PBO policy. GERP-II maintains the same three mutually reinforcing and complementary components of GERP-I. Component 1, Attaining Fiscal Sustainability; Component 2, Supporting Private sector-led Agriculture and Industrial Sector Transformation; Component 3, Enhancing Economic and Social Inclusion.


The overarching development objective of GERSP II is to continue to strengthen resilience and enhance inclusive post-pandemic economic recovery through improved governance and real sector reforms. The program will continue to support Namibia’s medium to long term development agenda, with particular emphasis on enhancing fiscal performance, revival of critical sectors of the economy, development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), and social protection.

Target Groups

The beneficiaries of the program remain the same as in GERSP I. The direct beneficiaries are the various Ministries, Departments and Agencies whose reforms are being supported by the operation. These are the Ministry of Finance; Ministry of Industrialization and Trade; Ministry of Public Enterprises; Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Land Reform; and Ministry of Gender Equality, Poverty Eradication and Social Welfare. The private sector will benefit from improved investment opportunities in agriculture and industry (including in sustainable special economic zones), and PPP opportunities. The MSMEs will benefit from improved policy framework and access to affordable finance. Entrepreneurs in the formal and informal sectors will benefit from job opportunities as well as higher retention rates in targeted industries. The program will ultimately indirectly benefit all citizens of Namibia as enhanced fiscal performance will help to expand fiscal space for development and pro-poor spending; and climate sensitive sector reforms will help to attract private investments for green growth and job creation. The operation will contribute to strengthened policy frameworks for economic empowerment of women and is a category III on the Gender Marker System.

IUCN Min of Agriculture GCF project


The Government of Tanzania through Ministry of Agriculture recently received a formal approval from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) secretariat to advance the 5-year “Enhancing Adaptive Capacity and Climate Resilience of Vulnerable Smallholder Farming Communities and Agro-pastoral Systems in Semi-Arid Areas of Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar - ECCRA” concept note to full proposal. Sida will provide a small amount of funding (1 M SEK) to allow the IUCN and the Ministry of Agriculture to develop a full project proposal to be submitted to the GCF. The 5-year project will aim to enhance the adaptive capacity and climate resilience of vulnerable smallholder farming communities in agro-pastoral farming systems of semi-arid regions of Tanzania mainland (Manyara and Singida) and Zanzibar (Pemba Kaskazini). Additional funding is available from UNWomen and Belgian Enabel. First stage approval of the proposal has been obtained from the GCF. The project includes the following main components: Component 1; focuses on climate resilient landscape management planning that aims to address drivers of poor land use, land degradation and deforestation in the agricultural landscapes that contribute to the deteriorating integrity and health of the rangelands and as source of GHG emissions. Component 2: focuses on climate proofing selected agricultural value chains while harnessing synergies between adaptation and mitigation. This component also integrates the private sector through innovative business models. Climate services will provide essential information that will inform planning (Component 1), investments and decision-making (Component 2) thus helping minimize the adverse effects of climate change on the investments. Component 3: focuses on climate infrastructure and services; Component 4: focuses on strengthening institutional capacities and interagency collaboration necessary for mainstreaming climate change considerations into planning and budgets thus ensuring sustainability of the interventions beyond a project life cycle. The proposal development will allow the Government of Tanzania and also the Embassy to develop its thinking on climate resilience. A contribution of additional funding for the actual project implementation is a possibility. It should be noted that Sida contribution of SEK 1 000 000.00 (aprox USD 105,000.00) will attract 60 000 000 USD from GCF which will contribute in bringing big impact to the biodiversity conservation, agriculture resilience to climate change impact to Tanzania, as well as improvement of the livelohood to the communities in the project areas. Although the Ministry of Agriculture is a government agent, public agencies need to step up regarding climate change. Supporting Ministry of Agriculture in this regard could be seen as worthwhile regardless of the cautions expressed in the strategy about cooperation with the Government. It should be noted however that the fund will be managed by the IUCN, in this regard the interaction on financial disbursement and management will be between the Sida and IUCN.


IUCN, as a GCF accredited entity, is supporting the Government of Tanzania through the Ministry of Agriculture to develop a 5-year US$ 30 million GCF funding proposal entitled "Enhancing Adaptive Capacity and Climate Resilience of Vulnerable Smallholder Farming Communities and Agro-pastoral Systems in Semi-Arid Areas of Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar (ECCRA)". The goal of the Project is to increase the resilience of vulnerable smallholder farmers and communities by restoring climate-degraded landscapes and accelerating/enabling the climate resilience of agroecological systems and livelihoods. The Project will operate in the Districts of Ikungi (Singida), Simanjiro (Manyara) and Micheweni (Pemba Kaskazini). It should be noted that Sida contribution of SEK 1 000 000.00 (aprox USD 105,000.00) which will attract 30 000 000 USD from GCF which will contribute in bringing big impact to the biodiversity conservation, agriculture resilience to climate change impact to Tanzania, as well as improvement of the livelihood to the communities in the project areas.

Seychelles - Integrated and Comprehensive Sanitation Master Plan


Seychelles Comprehensive and Integrated Sanitation Master Plan aims to help the Government and Public Utilities Corporation (PUC) develop a strategy for the sanitation sector for the next 25 years based on a new paradigm: “waste is a resource”. This strategy will be comprehensive and will in particular address the legal and institutional frameworks as well as PUC financial sustainability. The project comprises two main components, namely: i) Development of the Integrated and Comprehensive Sanitation Master Plan, and ii) Project Management, consultation and communication. Its total costs amounts € 1,439,655, out of which the AWF will contribute to € € 1,073,100. The project’s immediate outcomes are the promotion of innovative and alternative approaches to sanitation based on the development of an ICSMP and the consequent ability of the Seychelles Government to mobilise funds for sanitation projects. Thus, it will be the base for the realisation of highly innovative sanitation solutions with multi-sectoral benefits, which will have two main long-term impacts: the improvement of the Seychelles Environment and the improvement of health and sanitary conditions at the targeted islands.


The objective of the project is therefore to develop an Integrated and Comprehensive Sanitation Master Plan (ICSMP) for the three main islands of Seychelles, fully mindful of the synergies with linked infrastructure sectors (water supply, drainage, solid waste and energy) and other concerned areas like agriculture, land use planning, tourism and economic development in order to accelerate the achievement of the National Sustainable Development Strategy.

Target Groups

The direct beneficiaries of the project will be PUC as well as other concerned ministries and public entities. Indirectly the beneficiaries will be: the population of the three main Islands of Mahé, Praslin and La Digue (88,300 inhabitants in 2012), which will be targeted by the study (improved sanitation service, improved environmental conditions); the tourism industry (improved sanitation service, improved environmental conditions, use of reclaimed water); farmers (use of reclaimed water for irrigation, reuse of compost as soil conditioner and fertilizer); production industry (use of reclaimed water; savings for freshwater consumption).

IGAD Land Governance Program, Horn of Africa


The institutional capacities of IGAD Secretariat will be supported to formulate a regional land governance policy framework in an inclusive and participatory bottom-up process. This task will be facilitated by the Land Policy Initiative that is the mandated body by the African Union to implement the Declaration on Land. The Land Policy Initiative is contract partner and will technically assist IGAD.