Customary tenure meets responsible agricultural investments
Country Insights digest - No. 1 / May 2021
Located in the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia is ecologically and culturally highly diverse and the most populous landlocked country worldwide. Its economy largely depends on agriculture and agricultural commodity exports. Farming and herding are key livelihoods to more than 80% of the population. Drought is a major issue in many areas of Ethiopia which is part of the initiative Building Resilience in Africa’s Dry Lands.
Bangladesh is a low altitude country situated at the Bengal river delta, sharing a border with India and Myanmar. There are mountains in peripheral areas, such as the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the southeast. It is in the top ten most populated countries in the world, with a population of 163 million. Covering 147,570 km2, this gives a density of over 1,100 people per km2, by far the highest figure for populous lands. It is also one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, highly vulnerable to climate-related events.
Post-conflict situations remain strained for years and can easily relapse into violence during the first two decades. During this social, political, and economic transition phase, post-conflict countries are especially fragile and vulnerable. Increasingly acknowledged as a key driver or root cause for conflict, land is as much a critical relapse factor as it is a bottleneck to recovery . In the aftermath of war, access to and control of land and natural resources often remains a sensitive issue for years which may precipitate tensions and challenge stability. At the same time, resolving land-related issues is significant to achieve sustainable and durable peace. Yet, it is just one item on a long list of issues that need to be addressed in post-conflict periods next to reconciliation and transitional justice processes, establishing security and a functioning state, economic recovery, and the rebuilding of social cohesion .
UN member States endorsed the 2030 Agenda and committed to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) a set of 17 Global Goals, in a 15-year period. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development contains land-related targets and indicators under SDGs 1, 2, 5, 11 and 15. Many land organizations and stakeholders are committed to fully implementing the SDGs and to monitoring the land-related indicators in order to promote responsible land governance. Land is a significant resource, both cross-cutting and critical to achieving the SDGs.