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Consult the over 45,000 land-related publications, laws and legislations and multimedia resources in the Land Library by browsing through the categories below.

You can browse for resources on a particular topic, through tten LandVoc Themes, as well as browsing by type of resources and the over 400 different sources that provide resources on the Land Library. Finally, you can select any country to find country-specific information in the Library.

By LandVoc Overarching Categories


Advocacy has a broad meaning: it means pushing for some kind of change in society. It
includes trying to persuade people to change their behaviour, pressing companies to change
their activities or rules, or persuading the government to change its policies and laws. (p.123)


agrarian reform

Agrarian, or land, reform is confined to the redistribution of land; in a broader sense it includes related changes in agricultural institutions, including credit, taxation, rents, and cooperatives.


agrarian structure

The complex of relationships involving land tenure, production, supporting services and rural institutions.
Source: UNBIS Thesaurus, 2009


agricultural land management

Organization, use and conservation of soils adopted to cultivate, at large.


agroforestry systems

An agroforestry system is a form of multiple land use where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, bamboos, palm trees, woody lianas) are grown on the same land management unit with crops and/or animals.


assignment (land)

Assignment is the cession by the tenant of a lease to another party.



Something that indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line.


cadastral administration

the cadastral administration in any given jurisdiction is the organisation (or organisations) responsible for creating, maintaining and dealing with cadastre.


cadastral register

The term cadastral register may include registers for any of the different types of cadastral systems identified in the definition of cadastres.




A public record, survey, or map of the value, extent, and ownership of land as a basis of taxation.


capital value (land)

The capital value of a property is what a property will sell for.


co-ownership rights

The law that refers to divided or undivided shares, that are owned by more than one co-owners



The process of codification id the development of a coherent legal code from an existing body of law.


collateral (land)

Property used as collateral is pledged as a guarantee for the repayment of a loan. The most common form of use of collateral is the mortgage.


common rights

Common rights are rights held in common property.



The term commons is most frequently used to refer to those natural resources that are held in common by a community.


communal ownership

Communal ownership is a commonly used term to describe those situations where rights to use resources are held by a community.


communal territory

The concept of communal territory is principally related to agrarian economies based on peasant agriculture where there has been a strong identification of the land within a commune's area with the peasants of the commune working that land.



The act or process of making amends for something.


concession (land)

A concession is defined as the granting of a territory for its occupation and use.


conflict of interest

A conflict of interest is a situation where an individual or corporate entity is invited to act on behalf of one party, but has an actual or potential relationship with or interest in the other party or parties.


contract farming

Contract farming is agricultural production carried out according to an agreement between a buyer and farmers, which establishes conditions for the production and marketing of a farm product or products


control rights

Control rights refer to the right to supervise the management of a property. They may include rights to make a decision about how the land should be used.


customary land rights

Customary land rights refer to the enjoyment of some use of land that arises through customary, unwritten practice rather than through written codified law.



a deed is a written or printed instrument that effects a legal disposition such as a contract for sale.



disturbance is a head of claim for compensation for losses resulting from the taking of land, other than the taking of the land itself, or the associated effects of the taking on land retained.


dowry (land)

A dowry is the property that forms a part of a marriage agreement.


eminent domain

The term derives from the state's position as having ultimate power over the land, which may reach the process of compulsory acquisition or expropriation of the land.



encroachment is the illegal occupation or use of portion of land holdings of another.


estate management

estate management is the maintenance or enhancement of the value of the land interests owned.



Eviction is the removal of someone from their occupation of land or property.


farm tenancy

A farm tenancy is a contractual agreement whereby the tenant farmer, the lessee, agrees a tenancy with the landowner, the lessor. The tenancy will identify the piece of land leased, together with the other terms and conditions, including rent.


farming systems


Different types of farming and methods of cultivation, e.g. shifting cultivation systems, ley systems, systems with permanent upland cultivation, fallow systems, grazing systems and systems with perennial crops.


forest grazing

The combined use of forestland or woodland for both wood production and animal production by grazing of the coexisting indigenous forage, or vegetation that is managed like indigenous forage.Also called as silvopastoral system.


forest law

Forest law comprises the package of laws and regulations governing production and protection of forests, as well as those that regulate the powers of the administration in forests subject to the forest law.


free trade agreements

International consensus on liberalization of goods exchange.


geographical information systems

An information system for capturing, storing, integrating, analyzing and displaying geospatial data.


grazing contracts

A grazing contract or licence is a legal contract for an agreement, for example between a farmer and a grazier, specifying the terms under which the latter can use the identified land of the former for grazing purposes.


grazing land rights

grazing land rights refer to the rights to use pastoral land for the survival and nourishment of livestock.


green belts

Areas of land whose main purpose it to curb the outward expansion of a large urban area and in which development is strictly controlled.


illegal occupation

Illegal occupation is the disposition of land without rights.


independent experts

An independent expert is a specialist appointed to decide a settlement when the parties are unable to reach agreement on an issue in contention.


indigenous lands

territory whose owners legitimacy is drawn from prior occupancy (founding fathers).


indigenous tenure

Specific land access and land use principles, in force in particular traditional ethnic groups.


informal property

Informal property consists in rights that lack formal, official recognition and protection.


inheritance tax

A tax imposed on the privilege of receiving property by inheritance or legal succession and assessed on the value of the property received. Also called death tax.


investment funds

Capital participation to production or economic activities.


land conflicts

Disagreement over land, where specific individual or collective interests related to land are in opposition.


land consolidation

Joining small plots of land together to form larger farms or large fields.


land grabbing

Large-scale acquisition of farmland (over 1,000 ha) whether by purchase , leases or other means.


land grabs

Unduly setting apart or taking for one's own use, control or management of a stretch of territory.


land inheritance rights

Legal provisions applying in case of territorial succession.


land law

land legislation

Land law is the body of law dealing with land, its definition, ownership and use whether urban or rural.


land loans

Land loan is the temporary cession of land use, normally without rent payable for its use.


land reform

A government policy of splitting up agricultural land and dividing it up between those people who do not own any land.


land rent

in practical terms rent is the payment for the hire of land and buildings and is a function of the supply and demand for that particular type of property in that particular location.


land speculation

Land speculation is the purchase of land with the intention of selling it, generally quickly, at a substantial profit.


land suitability

Land suitability is the fitness of a given type of land for a defined use. The land may be considered in its present condition or after improvements. The process of land suitability classification is the appraisal and grouping of specific areas of land in terms of their suitability for defined uses.




A contract granting use or occupation of property during a specified period in exchange for a specified rent.


local community

local communities

Local community is a traditional collectivity with a range of powers covering a certain geographical area and an autonomous management structure.


management rights

management rights are the rights to manage the interest in land in accordance with the limitations imposed by the interest.


manure contract

a manure contract is an agreement where the herders supply the animals' manure to the farmers' land.


marital property rights

Entitlement to enjoy ownership advantages, due to marital status.



A matrilineal lineage group is one where the line of descent and membership is transmitted by the female.


negotiated land reform

Reform that uses the land market as a vehicle for redistributing land, but in which the state plays an important role in providing funds (e.g., through grants and or loans) for poor farmers to purchase land.


non indigenous peoples

Non-indigenous refers to an entity or concept that originally comes from outside the area specified.



The notary is both a conveyancing lawyer and a public official responsible for seeing that the conveyance is properly undertaken. The notary is a vital part of the system of land transactions in many jurisdictions in continental Europe. The notary is bound by a strict code of ethics, enforced by the relevant national bodies.



Occupation is the physical disposition of land.


open access (land)

Open access is a tenure where there is no control on access to resources: specific rights are not assigned to anyone and no-one can be excluded.


open data

Data is open if it can be freely accessed, used, modified and shared by anyone for any purpose - subject only, at most, to requirements to provide attribution and/or share-alike. Specifically, open data is defined by the Open Definition and requires that the data be A. Legally open: that is, available under an open (data) license that permits anyone freely to access, reuse and redistribute B. Technically open: that is, that the data be available for no more than the cost of reproduction and in machine-readable and bulk form.


orphans land rights

Legal framework and provisions under a given land regime, concerning orphans.


parcel plan

A parcel plan is generally a large scale map of an area showing all of the property parcels and their use, the boundaries and the distance between them and the buildings and improvements.


pastoral land rights

pastoral land rights refer to the right to use specific pastoral land.


pastoral lands

Pastoral land is land used by pastoralists and shepherds for grazing livestock.



A patrilineal lineage group is one where the line of descent and membership is transmitted by the male.


personal property

Personal property is a moveable good belonging to somebody.



The situation in which an individual is not able to afford an adequate standard of living, i.e. not able to buy clothing, food or shelter. The level may vary from country to country.


pre-emption rights

a pre-emption right is the legal opportunity to buy a particular property before it is put on the market.


private forests

Private forests where the detailed operations are controlled by the common rules for all forest land, including felling permits.


property law

property regulation

Property law is the generic term within which falls the legal framework dealing with property, its use, ownership, regulation and disposition. As such, property law applies both to real property and personal property, and is distinguished from land law which applies only to real property.


protected areas

Protected areas refer to areas of at least 1,000 hectares as scientific and natural reserves and strict nature reserves, national parks of national and international reputation, natural monuments and landscapes.



A reform is a modification of an existing law or institution, either by the revision of an existing law or by the enactment of a new law.


regularization of illegal occupation

Regularization of illegal occupation is the legalization of the disposition of land.


regularization of ownership

Regularization of ownership is where informal or illegal occupation of land is legalised by statute, giving occupiers the legal right to private ownership of the land.


right of first occupancy

the right of first occupancy traditionally derives from the arrival and installation of people in an unoccupied area.


rights in divorce

Legal framework and provisions applying in case of separation/divorce.


rights of clearance

right of clearance

Right of clearance is the agreement granted by the first occupant for cutting bush and continuously cultivating.


riparian rights

riparian rights are those rights in respect of the use and entitlement to water enjoyed by a riparian owner whose land is contiguous with a river or a stream.


sacred woods

A sacred wood is a wood which has a spiritual significance where the land is held by the local spirits and its spiritual character is venerated.



The scale is the relationship between the representation of an object on a plan or map, and its size in reality.


security of tenure (land)

land tenure security
secure land tenure

Security of tenure is the guarantee of continued occupancy or use rights whether by virtue of formal rights, customary rules or other forms of assurance.


statute law

Statutory law refers to the legislation (or other legal instruments also referred to as statutes) passed by a legislative body and formally placed on record in a written or printed form.



A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to practise the science of measurement; to assemble and assess land and geographic related information.


tenant farmers

A tenant farmer is someone who holds a farm as a farmer or a share cropper.



One that pays rent to use or occupy land, a building, or other property owned by another.



Territory may be viewed as the area where an individual or community lives.


title deed

the title deed of a property is the document which evidences or proves ownership of the property.


Torrens system

the Torrens system is a system of title registration introduced in South Australia, in 1858.


town and country planning

Town and country planning is the planning framework within which decisions are made about how land is to be used.


transaction costs

transaction costs are the costs associated with the transaction of property.


unclaimed lands

Unclaimed land is land for which there is no owner or claimant.


urban areas

Urban areas as defined by the Census Bureau are densely-populated areas with at least 50,000 people ("urbanized areas") and densely-populated areas with 2,500 to 50,000 people ("urban clusters").



Waste technically refers to the owner's right to change the nature of the land whether for better or for worse, although the most common interpretation is of abuse of the land.


willing seller

A willing seller is one who is neither eager nor reluctant to sell.


By Countries

Afghanistan (204)
Albania (313)
Algeria (332)
Andorra (19)
Angola (219)
Anguilla (5)
Argentina (739)
Armenia (179)
Aruba (7)
Australia (1,231)
Austria (317)
Azerbaijan (174)
Bahamas (153)
Bahrain (112)
Bangladesh (813)
Barbados (101)
Belarus (316)
Belgium (250)
Belize (140)
Benin (259)
Bermuda (86)
Bhutan (130)
Bolivia (713)
Botswana (337)
Brazil (1,496)
Bulgaria (159)
Burkina Faso (783)
Burundi (268)
Cambodia (1,595)
Cameroon (473)
Canada (1,323)
Cape Verde (132)
Chad (239)
Chile (604)
China (2,051)
Colombia (1,438)
Comoros (73)
Congo (399)

By types of resources

  • Institutional & promotional materials (719)

    Institutional and promotional materials for an organization, such as annual reports and brochures.

  • Journal Articles & Books (14,745)

    Under this resource type, typically you will find land-related information with a more scientific approach. Examples... more

    • Peer-reviewed publication (1,611)

      A peer-reviewed publication is a subcategory under Journal Articles & Books, in the sense that it is an article... more

  • Legislation & Policies (1,866)

    Besides publications and articles about land governance, the Land Library also hosts country-level laws and policies... more

    • Agreements & Contracts (387)

      The final Legislation & Policies subcategory is Agreements & Contracts. This subcategory includes metadata... more

    • Constitution (329)

      A constitution is the highest level of national legislation. Many countries have included land-related provisions in... more

    • International Conventions or Treaties (108)

      The Land Portal identifies International Conventions or Treaties as a subcategory of Legislation & Policies.... more

    • Jurisprudence (14)

      With jurisprudence, the Land Portal identifies case law, or law that has been established by the outcome of former... more

    • Legislation (7,268)

      With the legislation subcategory, the Land Portal identifies any formal laws on a national level. A formal law is... more

    • National Policies (409)

      A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol, accepted and implemented on... more

    • Other legal document (42)

      While the Land Portal prefers to avoid using a category such as "Other" in metadata - since it does not provide a... more

    • Regulations (8,005)

      Regulations is used as the general term for lower-level law (below a constitution or statutory law). The category is... more

    • UN Resolutions (6)

      A United Nations resolution (UN resolution) is a formal text adopted by a United Nations (UN) body. Although any UN... more

  • Manuals & Guidelines (448)

    The Manuals and Guidelines-resource type on the Land Portal brings together all the types of resources that aim to... more

  • Multimedia (453)

    The multimedia category is fairly self-explanatory in the sense that it contains all non-bibliographic resources... more

    • Maps (19)

      For a topic as land governance maps are an extremely important tool. Many organizations and information providers... more

    • Videos (71)

      The Land Portal hosts many interesting videos related to land governance. These can be embedded in the pages or... more

  • Policy Papers & Briefs (3,670)

    The Policy Papers & Briefs resource type is meant for publications and resources that contain policy directions... more

  • Reports & Research (10,050)

    Reports & Research is a resource type for publications where research was involved in establishing the report,... more

  • Training Resources & Tools (466)

    This category includes resources on different types of tools and strategies to address land governance issues as... more

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