Browse the Land Library | Land Portal

Consult the over 45,000 land-related publications, laws and legislations and multimedia resources in the Land Library by browsing through the categories below.

You can browse for resources on a particular topic, through tten LandVoc Themes, as well as browsing by type of resources and the over 400 different sources that provide resources on the Land Library. Finally, you can select any country to find country-specific information in the Library.

By LandVoc Overarching Categories

abandoned land

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activities

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(4)

adjudication

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advocacy

Advocacy has a broad meaning: it means pushing for some kind of change in society. It includes trying to persuade people to change their behaviour, pressing companies to change their activities or rules, or persuading the government to change its policies and laws. (p.123)

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agrarian reform

Agrarian, or land, reform is confined to the redistribution of land; in a broader sense it includes related changes in agricultural institutions, including credit, taxation, rents, and cooperatives.

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agrarian structure

The complex of relationships involving land tenure, production, supporting services and rural institutions. Source: UNBIS Thesaurus, 2009

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agricultural and rural legislation

Synonyms: 
agrarian law
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agricultural land management

Organization, use and conservation of soils adopted to cultivate, at large.

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agriculture

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agroforestry systems

An agroforestry system is a form of multiple land use where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, bamboos, palm trees, woody lianas) are grown on the same land management unit with crops and/or animals.

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agropastoral systems

Synonyms: 
agropastoralism
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alienation (land)

Alienation is the transfer of ownership of land.

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arable land

Arable land, in agricultural statistics, is land worked (ploughed or tilled) regularly, generally under a system of crop rotation

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assessment

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assignment (land)

Assignment is the cession by the tenant of a lease to another party.

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basic administrative unit

administrative entity, subject to registration (by law), or recordation (by informal right, or customary right, or another social tenure relationship), consisting of zero or more spatial units against which (one or more) unique and homogeneous rights (e.g. ownership right or land use right), responsibilities or restrictions are associated to the whole entity, as included in a Land Administration system

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biodiversity

The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part

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boundaries

Something that indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line.

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(55)

boundary face

face that is used in the 3-dimensional representation of a boundary of a spatial unit

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(2)

boundary face string

boundary forming part of the outside of a spatial unit

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(1)
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building units

Component of building: the legal, recorded or informal space of the physical entity

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(2)
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cadastral administration

the cadastral administration in any given jurisdiction is the organisation (or organisations) responsible for creating, maintaining and dealing with cadastre.

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cadastral maps

Map that shows boundaries and ownership of land in a specific area.

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cadastral register

The term cadastral register may include registers for any of the different types of cadastral systems identified in the definition of cadastres.

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cadastres

Synonyms: 
cadastre

A public record, survey, or map of the value, extent, and ownership of land as a basis of taxation.

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capacity building

Synonyms: 
capacity development

The process through which the ability of individuals and organizations to perform functions, solve problems and set and achieve sustainable objectives is developed and maintained over time
 

Source: UN Thesaurus

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capital value (land)

The capital value of a property is what a property will sell for.

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climate change

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co-ownership rights

The law that refers to divided or undivided shares, that are owned by more than one co-owners

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coastal areas

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codification

The process of codification id the development of a coherent legal code from an existing body of law.

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collateral (land)

Property used as collateral is pledged as a guarantee for the repayment of a loan. The most common form of use of collateral is the mortgage.

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collective ownership

Collective ownership is the ownership of means of production by all members of a group for the benefit of all its members.
 

Source: Wikipedia

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common lands

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(145)

common law

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common property

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common rights

Common rights are rights held in common property.

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commons

The term commons is most frequently used to refer to those natural resources that are held in common by a community.

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communal ownership

Communal ownership is a commonly used term to describe those situations where rights to use resources are held by a community.

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communal territory

The concept of communal territory is principally related to agrarian economies based on peasant agriculture where there has been a strong identification of the land within a commune's area with the peasants of the commune working that land.

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community forestry

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(683)

community land rights

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compensation

The act or process of making amends for something.

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compulsory acquisitions

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concession (land)

A concession is defined as the granting of a territory for its occupation and use.

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conflict of interest

A conflict of interest is a situation where an individual or corporate entity is invited to act on behalf of one party, but has an actual or potential relationship with or interest in the other party or parties.

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conflicts

Conflict is long-term with deeply rooted issues that are seen as “non-negotiable”

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continuum in land rights

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contract farming

Contract farming is agricultural production carried out according to an agreement between a buyer and farmers, which establishes conditions for the production and marketing of a farm product or products

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control rights

Control rights refer to the right to supervise the management of a property. They may include rights to make a decision about how the land should be used.

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(22)

corruption

The abuse of entrusted power for private gain.
 

Source: Transparency International

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(440)

COVID-19

Synonyms: 
coronavirus disease

COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus SARS-Cov-2, which had not been previously identified in humans.

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customary land rights

Customary land rights refer to the enjoyment of some use of land that arises through customary, unwritten practice rather than through written codified law.

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customary law

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customary tenure

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(111)

decentralization

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(578)

deed registration

Deeds registration is a system of proof of property ownership and interests based on the registration of transfer and other deeds.
 

Source: Multilingual thesaurus on land tenure (English version). ISBN 92-5-104283-7

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(15)

deforestation

The conversion of forest to other land use independently whether human-induced or not
 

Source: Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020, FAO 2018

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desertification

Desertification: land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities
 

Source: UNCCD, 2011

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development

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(635)

development agencies

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(437)

discrimination

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(1)

displacement

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(754)

dispossession

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(105)

disturbance

disturbance is a head of claim for compensation for losses resulting from the taking of land, other than the taking of the land itself, or the associated effects of the taking on land retained.

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(18)

dowry (land)

A dowry is the property that forms a part of a marriage agreement.

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(13)

drylands

Drylands: tropical and temperate areas with an aridity index (annual rainfall/annual potential evaporation) of less than 0.65

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eminent domain

The term derives from the state's position as having ultimate power over the land, which may reach the process of compulsory acquisition or expropriation of the land.

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encroachment

encroachment is the illegal occupation or use of portion of land holdings of another.

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(66)

environment

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(3,705)

equal rights

Equality before the law, when all people have the same rights

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(5)
(147)

estate management

estate management is the maintenance or enhancement of the value of the land interests owned.

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(19)
(146)
(2,006)
(5,816)

eviction

Eviction is the removal of someone from their occupation of land or property.

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(154)

expropriation

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(359)

extractive industries

Synonyms: 
agrofuel industries
palm oil industries
mining
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(671)

face based spatial units

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(1)

families

A group of people, or of some other animals, composed of parents and offspring.

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(1)

farm tenancy

A farm tenancy is a contractual agreement whereby the tenant farmer, the lessee, agrees a tenancy with the landowner, the lessor. The tenancy will identify the piece of land leased, together with the other terms and conditions, including rent.

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(23)

farmers

Those who works on or operates a farm.

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farmers associations

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(60)

farming systems

Synonyms: 
farming

Different types of farming and methods of cultivation, e.g. shifting cultivation systems, ley systems, systems with permanent upland cultivation, fallow systems, grazing systems and systems with perennial crops.

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farmland

Synonyms: 
agricultural land
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(3,542)
(220)
(275)

fisheries

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(1,675)

food security

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(2,531)

foreign investment

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(14)

forest conservation

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(831)

forest land

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(2,366)

forest law

Forest law comprises the package of laws and regulations governing production and protection of forests, as well as those that regulate the powers of the administration in forests subject to the forest law.

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(439)

forest management plans

A document describing the manner in which commercial forestry will be carried out, and which may specify optimum harvest rates, means of minimizing environmental impacts, measures to ensure the health and safety of workers, and processes to accommodate interests of local communities.

 

Source: 

Guide to Forestry Contracts - Understanding Key Provisions (Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment (CCSI) and International Senior Lawyers Project (ISLP))

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(811)

forestry

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(3,217)

formal tenure

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(24)
(673)

freehold

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(12)
(179)
(169)

gender equity

Fairness of treatment for women and men according to their respective needs. A gender equity goal often requires measures to rectify the imbalances between the sexes, in particular to compensate for the historical and social disadvantages of women. Equity can be understood as the means, where equality is the end. Equity leads to equality.

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(16)

gender equity in access to land

Synonyms: 
women, marital
gender
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(1,484)

geographical information systems

An information system for capturing, storing, integrating, analyzing and displaying geospatial data.

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(485)
(211)
(761)
(969)
(2,080)

government

The act or process of governing, especially the control and administration of public policy in a political unit.

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(6)

government purchases

Governmental acquisition (of land).

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(9)

grasslands

Grassland is a land cover class that includes any geographic area dominated by natural herbaceous  plants (grasslands, prairies, steppes and savannahs)  with a cover of 10 percent or more, irrespective of  different human and/or animal activities e.g. grazing, selective fire management.

 

Source: Latham et al., 2014

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(8)

grassroots organizations

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(22)

grazing

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(724)

grazing contracts

A grazing contract or licence is a legal contract for an agreement, for example between a farmer and a grazier, specifying the terms under which the latter can use the identified land of the former for grazing purposes.

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grazing land rights

grazing land rights refer to the rights to use pastoral land for the survival and nourishment of livestock.

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(36)
(151)

green belts

Areas of land whose main purpose it to curb the outward expansion of a large urban area and in which development is strictly controlled.

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(12)

group tenure arrangements

Agreements between people or groups of people with regard to rights of occupancy or leases to individuals, perhaps by oral agreement according to customary rules, or by simple recording within the group.

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(1)
(80)
(304)
(190)
(149)

households

All the persons, kin and non-kin, who live in the same dwelling and share income, expenses and daily subsistence tasks. A basic unit for socio-cultural and economic analysis, a household may consist of persons (sometimes one but generally two or more) living together and jointly making provision for food or other essentials elements of the livelihood.

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(9)

housing rights

Synonyms: 
housing rights
homelessness
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(178)

human settlements

Cluster of dwellings of any type or size where human beings live

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(10)
(271)

hunger

The concept of hunger is commonly used for situations of serious food deprivation as well as for different forms of undernutrition, including a shortfall in access to sufficient food or in essential components of nutritionally necessary food making an impact on the normal physical or mental capacity of the person, or group of persons.

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(2)

illegal occupation

Illegal occupation is the disposition of land without rights.

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(6)

independent experts

An independent expert is a specialist appointed to decide a settlement when the parties are unable to reach agreement on an issue in contention.

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(2,039)

indigenous land rights

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indigenous lands

territory whose owners legitimacy is drawn from prior occupancy (founding fathers).

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indigenous peoples

Synonyms: 
indigenous communities
indigenous community

People whose ancestors inhabited a place or a country when persons from another culture or ethnic background arrived on the scene and dominated them through conquest, settlement, or other means and who today live more in conformity with their own social, economic, and cultural customs and traditions than those of the country of which they now form a part.

 

Source: Convention (No. 169) concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, UNHCHR, 1991.

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indigenous tenure

Specific land access and land use principles, in force in particular traditional ethnic groups.

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(1,300)

informal property

Informal property consists in rights that lack formal, official recognition and protection.

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(22)

informal settlements

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informal tenure regimes

Informal tenure refers to tenure arrangements that lack official recognition and protection.

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(1)

infrastructure

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(9)

inheritance tax

A tax imposed on the privilege of receiving property by inheritance or legal succession and assessed on the value of the property received. Also called death tax.

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(4)

intensive land use

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(65)

investment funds

Capital participation to production or economic activities.

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Islamic law

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(2,199)

land

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(4,652)

land access

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(1,262)

land acquisitions

Synonyms: 
land acquisition

Obtainment of land property/land use.

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land administration

The process of determining, recording and disseminating information about ownership, value and use of land and its associated resources. These processes include the determination (sometimes called 'adjudication') of land rights and other attributes, surveying and describing these, their detailed documentation, and the provision of relevant information for supporting land markets.

 

Source: 

Land administration guidelines with special reference to countries in transition (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe). ISBN 9211166446

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Land Administration Domain Model

a reference model that serves two goals: provide an extensible basis for the development and refinement of efficient and effective land administration systems, based on a Model Driven Architecture (MDA)

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(3)

land allocation

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land area

Synonyms: 
territories
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(175)

land classification

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(2)

land clearing

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(63)

land conflicts

Disagreement over land, where specific individual or collective interests related to land are in opposition.

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land consolidation

Joining small plots of land together to form larger farms or large fields.

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land contracts

An agreement between two parties in any way related to land

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land cover

Observed (bio)physical cover on the Earth’s surface.

 

Source: ISO/TC 211 Multi-Lingual Glossary of Terms

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land cover change

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land cover mapping

Land cover mapping is a semantic segmentation problem: each pixel in an aerial or satellite image must be classified into one of several land cover classes. These classes describe the surface of the earth and are typically broad categories such as “forest” or “field”. High-resolution land cover data (≤1m / pixel) is essential in many sustainability-related applications. Its uses include informing agricultural best management practices, monitoring forest change over time and measuring urban sprawl. However, land cover maps quickly fall out of date and must be updated as construction, erosion, and other processes act on the landscape.

 

Source: 

Large Scale High-Resolution Land Cover Mapping with Multi-Resolution Data
Caleb Robinson, Le Hou, Kolya Malkin, Rachel Soobitsky, Jacob Czawlytko, Bistra Dilkina, Nebojsa Jojic
The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019

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land deals

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(102)

land degradation

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(1,564)

land delivery

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(12)

land dispute

a land dispute is a disagreement over land.

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(278)

land dispute resolution

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(888)

land distribution

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(271)

land documentation

Evidence to justify a claim to land

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land economics

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land equity

Equitable tenure rights and equitable access to land, fisheries and forests, for all, women and men, youth and vulnerable and traditionally marginalized people, within the national context.

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land governance

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land grabbing

Large-scale acquisition of farmland (over 1,000 ha) whether by purchase , leases or other means.

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land improvement

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(255)

land information systems

A Land Information System is a tool for legal, administrative and economic decision-making and an aid for planning and development. A land information system consists, on the one hand, of a database containing spatially referenced land-related data for a defined area and, on the other, of procedures and techniques for the systematic collection, updating, processing and distribution of the data. The base of a land information system is a uniform spatial referencing system, which also simplifies the linking of data within the system with other land-related data.
 

Source: Land administration guidelines with special reference to countries in transition (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe). ISBN 9211166446

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land inheritance rights

Legal provisions applying in case of territorial succession.

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land investments

Acquisition of land for future benefits

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land law

Synonyms: 
land legislation

Land law is the body of law dealing with land, its definition, ownership and use whether urban or rural.

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land loans

Land loan is the temporary cession of land use, normally without rent payable for its use.

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land management

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land markets

Synonyms: 
trade
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(496)

land ownership

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land policies

Synonyms: 
land policy

Land policy is the set of intentions embodied in various policy instruments that are adopted by the state to organise land tenure and land use.
 

Source: FAO, 2003

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land practitioners

People actively engaged in any aspect of land governance

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land productivity

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(1)

land readjustment

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land records

evidence of land rights and contractual relations

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land reform

A government policy of splitting up agricultural land and dividing it up between those people who do not own any land.

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land register

The land registry is a database comprised of property rights and interests. In theory, it is held within the land agency and should include records of ownership (also known as the title or deed) for all registered land parcels within a jurisdiction, be it at the municipal, county or national level.

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land registration

Land registration is the official recording of legally recognised interests in land and is usually part of a cadastral system. From a legal perspective a distinction can be made between deeds registration, where the documents filed in the registry are the evidence of title, and registration of title, in which the register itself serves as the primary evidence.
 

Source: 

Multilingual thesaurus on land tenure (English version). ISBN 92-5-104283-7

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land rent

in practical terms rent is the payment for the hire of land and buildings and is a function of the supply and demand for that particular type of property in that particular location.

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land restoration

An intentional activity aimed at recovering degraded land

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land rights

Synonyms: 
land rights
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land rights activists

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land speculation

Land speculation is the purchase of land with the intention of selling it, generally quickly, at a substantial profit.

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land stakeholders

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(3)

land subdivision

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land suitability

Land suitability is the fitness of a given type of land for a defined use. The land may be considered in its present condition or after improvements. The process of land suitability classification is the appraisal and grouping of specific areas of land in terms of their suitability for defined uses.

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land surveying

Determining boundaries and fixing location of land by measuring land and recording related geographical information for planning, management and administration purposes.

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land tax

A tax on the amount of land owned.

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(82)

land tenure

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land tenure systems

Synonyms: 
land tenure system
land tenure regimes

The land tenure system is the way and conditions under which land may be used.

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land titling

Land titling is a form of privatization in that public assets are transferred to private families and individuals.
 

Source: 

Land Titling: A Mode of Privatization with the Potential to Deepen Democracy. 
Bernadette Atuahene, Chicago-Kent College of Law
Saint Louis University Law Journal (2006)

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land transactions

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(72)

land transfers

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land use

Arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to maintain it or produce change.

 

Source: ISO/TC 211 Multi-Lingual Glossary of Terms

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land use change

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(14)

land use mapping

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land use planning

Synonyms: 
land planning
infrastructure

Land use planning is the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternative patterns of land use and other physical, social and economic conditions.
 

Source: FAO, 2003

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land valuation

Estimation of the monetary or "market" value of land for the purpose for which it is currently used, e.g. farming.

 

Source: FAO

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land value capture

Land value capture is a policy approach that enables communities to recover and reinvest land value increases that result from public investment and other government actions. Also known as “value sharing,” it’s rooted in the notion that public action should generate public benefit. (Lincoln Institute of Land Policy)

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land-based financing

Range of instruments by which local governments expand their revenue base and generate funds based on land

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landlessness

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landowners

An owner or proprietor of land.

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leaseholds

A leasehold is a contractual arrangement under which a landlord (the lessor) grants the right of exclusive occupation of the land to a tenant (the lessee) for an agreed amount of money and for an agreed period of time

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leases

Synonyms: 
leasehold

A contract granting use or occupation of property during a specified period in exchange for a specified rent.

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legal empowerment

Synonyms: 
access to justice

The strengthening of the capacity of people to exercise their rights.

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legal pluralism

Legal pluralism is the existence of multiple legal systems within one (human) population and/or geographic area. Plural legal systems are particularly prevalent in former colonies, where the law of a former colonial authority may exist alongside more traditional legal systems (customary law).
 

Source: Wikipedia

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levels

set of spatial units, with a geometric, and/or topologic, and/or thematic coherence

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lineage

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livestock

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local communities

Synonyms: 
community
communities
local community

Local community is a traditional collectivity with a range of powers covering a certain geographical area and an autonomous management structure.

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management rights

management rights are the rights to manage the interest in land in accordance with the limitations imposed by the interest.

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manure contract

a manure contract is an agreement where the herders supply the animals' manure to the farmers' land.

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maps

A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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marital property rights

Entitlement to enjoy ownership advantages, due to marital status.

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matrilineal lineage

A matrilineal lineage group is one where the line of descent and membership is transmitted by the female.

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migration

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mining

The process or business of extracting ore or minerals from the ground.
 

Source: answers.com

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monitoring

Monitoring can be defined as a continuing function that aims primarily to provide the management and main stakeholders of an ongoing intervention with early indications of progress, or lack thereof, in the achievement of results. An ongoing intervention might be a project, programme or other kind of support to an outcome.

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natural disasters

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natural resources

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natural resources management

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(3,229)

nature reserves

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negotiated land reform

Reform that uses the land market as a vehicle for redistributing land, but in which the state plays an important role in providing funds (e.g., through grants and or loans) for poor farmers to purchase land.

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non indigenous peoples

Non-indigenous refers to an entity or concept that originally comes from outside the area specified.

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notary

The notary is both a conveyancing lawyer and a public official responsible for seeing that the conveyance is properly undertaken. The notary is a vital part of the system of land transactions in many jurisdictions in continental Europe. The notary is bound by a strict code of ethics, enforced by the relevant national bodies.

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occupation

Occupation is the physical disposition of land.

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open access (land)

Open access is a tenure where there is no control on access to resources: specific rights are not assigned to anyone and no-one can be excluded.

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open data

Data is open if it can be freely accessed, used, modified and shared by anyone for any purpose - subject only, at most, to requirements to provide attribution and/or share-alike. Specifically, open data is defined by the Open Definition and requires that the data be A. Legally open: that is, available under an open (data) license that permits anyone freely to access, reuse and redistribute B. Technically open: that is, that the data be available for no more than the cost of reproduction and in machine-readable and bulk form.

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orphans land rights

Legal framework and provisions under a given land regime, concerning orphans.

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palm oil industries

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parcel plan

A parcel plan is generally a large scale map of an area showing all of the property parcels and their use, the boundaries and the distance between them and the buildings and improvements.

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(7)

parcels

A parcel (or plot) of land is an area of land with a particular ownership, land use, or other characteristic. A parcel is frequently used as the basis for a cadastre or land registration system.

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pastoral land rights

pastoral land rights refer to the right to use specific pastoral land.

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pastoral lands

Pastoral land is land used by pastoralists and shepherds for grazing livestock.

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pastoralists

A pastoralist looks after grazing livestock, as a shepherd, goatherd, swineherd, or cowherd in a way of life which is essentially livestock husbandry.
 

Source: Multilingual Thesaurus on Land Tenure, FAO, 2003.

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patrilineal lineage

A patrilineal lineage group is one where the line of descent and membership is transmitted by the male.

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perception of tenure security

The way individuals or groups of individuals regard (perceive) their effective protection from involuntary removal from their land or residence.

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peri-urban agriculture

Synonyms: 
suburban agriculture
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periurban areas

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(1,058)

points

0-dimensional geometric primitive, representing a position

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(1)
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post-conflict settings

The setting after an armed conflict, during a social, political, and economic transition phase, wherein post-conflict communities may deal with destroyed infrastructure, degraded lands, as well as returning refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and ex-combatants.

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poverty

The situation in which an individual is not able to afford an adequate standard of living, i.e. not able to buy clothing, food or shelter. The level may vary from country to country.

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pre-emption rights

a pre-emption right is the legal opportunity to buy a particular property before it is put on the market.

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(1)

prescription

prescription is the acquisition or extinction of rights by lapse of time.

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(1)

private forests

Private forests where the detailed operations are controlled by the common rules for all forest land, including felling permits.

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(95)

private ownership

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(853)

private property

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(7)

private sector

Private sector companies are ones that are not owned by the government. This is opposed to the public sector that consists of industries such as education and unemployment insurance.

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(6)

profiles

set of one or more base standards or subsets of base standards, and, where applicable, the identification of chosen clauses, classes, options and parameters of those base standards, that are necessary for accomplishing a particular function

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(1)

property

Synonyms: 
property rights
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(1,446)

property law

Synonyms: 
property regulation

Property law is the generic term within which falls the legal framework dealing with property, its use, ownership, regulation and disposition. As such, property law applies both to real property and personal property, and is distinguished from land law which applies only to real property.

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(183)

property rights

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(3,203)

protected areas

Protected areas refer to areas of at least 1,000 hectares as scientific and natural reserves and strict nature reserves, national parks of national and international reputation, natural monuments and landscapes.

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(1,278)

protection of minorities

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(1)

public ownership

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(2,532)

public participation

The use of appropriate procedures for informing the public and in obtaining early and continuing participation in planning and decision making.

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(7)
(85)

rangelands

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(2,024)

regularization of illegal occupation

Regularization of illegal occupation is the legalization of the disposition of land.

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religious tenure regimes

Tenure arrangements held under religion-based rules. Refers mainly to Islamic societies.

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(1)

research

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(1,783)

resettlement

The relocation of individuals, households, or communities from their land or from land they are occupying. Resettlement often results from infrastructure upgrading, large development initiatives, new government land policies, or natural disasters that destroy land. Resettlement can also be driven by government policies dealing with marginalized or minority groups. Resettlement can be either voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary resettlement is accomplished with the free will of the persons to be resettled. Involuntary resettlement occurs without the informed consent of the displaced persons and results in the forced movement of people from their land to other locations.

Source: Land Tenure and Property Rights Framework (USAID)

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(1)

resilience

Resilience is the ability of people, communities and systems that are confronted by disasters or crises to withstand damage and to recover rapidly.

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(16)

responsible investment

Responsible investment is an approach to investment that explicitly acknowledges the relevance to the investor of environmental, social and governance factors, and of the long-term health and stability of the market as a whole. It recognises that the generation of long-term sustainable returns is dependent on stable, well-functioning and well-governed social, environmental and economic systems.

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(6)

right of access

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right of first occupancy

the right of first occupancy traditionally derives from the arrival and installation of people in an unoccupied area.

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(7)

rights in divorce

Legal framework and provisions applying in case of separation/divorce.

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rights of clearance

Synonyms: 
right of clearance

Right of clearance is the agreement granted by the first occupant for cutting bush and continuously cultivating.

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rights to the city

Democratic control over the city, with the right to access, occupy and use urban space

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riparian rights

riparian rights are those rights in respect of the use and entitlement to water enjoyed by a riparian owner whose land is contiguous with a river or a stream.

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(147)

rule of law

The authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior

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rural areas

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(1,532)

rural development

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(1,907)

rural planning

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(90)

rural population

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(2,086)
(654)
(166)

scale

The scale is the relationship between the representation of an object on a plan or map, and its size in reality.

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servient tenement

a servient tenement is a property that is subject to a right of easement.

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slum upgrading

A process through which informal areas are gradually improved, formalised and incorporated into the city itself, through extending land, services and citizenship to slum dwellers.

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slums

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(201)

smallholders

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(11)

social housing

Housing provided for people on low incomes or with particular needs by government agencies or non-profit organizations.

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(5)
(151)

sources (land administration)

document providing the legal and/or administrative facts on which the land administration object (right, restriction, responsibility, basic administrative unit, party, or spatial unit) is based on

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(6)
(591)

spatial source

Source with the spatial representation of one (part of) or more spatial units

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(2)

spatial units

Single area (or multiple areas) of land and/or water, or a single volume (or multiple volumes) of space

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sporadic registration

Registering land on a case by case basis.

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(1)

squatters

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(56)

state forests

A state forest is a forest that is administered or protected by some agency of a sovereign or federated state, or territory.
 

Source: Wikipedia

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state property

State property is property owned by the state.

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statute law

Statutory law refers to the legislation (or other legal instruments also referred to as statutes) passed by a legislative body and formally placed on record in a written or printed form.

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statutory tenure

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surveyors

A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to practise the science of measurement; to assemble and assess land and geographic related information.

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sustainable development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
 

Source: FAO

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sustainable land management

Sustainable land management describes the use of land resources, including soils, water, animals and plants for  the  production of goods  to meet changing human needs while  ensuring the long term productive potential of these resources and  the maintenance of their environmental functions.

 

Source: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1992

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(1,486)

sustainable land use

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(768)
(261)

systematic registration

Systematic approach to adjudicating, surveying and registering parcels on an area by area basis.

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(5)
(1,213)

tenant farmers

A tenant farmer is someone who holds a farm as a farmer or a share cropper.

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(15)

tenant's rights

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(23)

tenants

One that pays rent to use or occupy land, a building, or other property owned by another.

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(52)

tenure insecurity

Tenure insecurity is the lack of right of individuals and groups to effective protection from involuntary removal from their land or residence by the state.

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(11)

tenure regularization

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(26)

tenure security

Synonyms: 
land tenure security
secure land tenure
security of tenure (land)
sécurité de tenure (foncière)
Segurança da posse (de terra)
reconocimiento de la posesión (de la tierra)

Security of tenure is the guarantee of continued occupancy or use rights whether by virtue of formal rights, customary rules or other forms of assurance.

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territory

Territory may be viewed as the area where an individual or community lives.

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(133)

title deeds

the title deed of a property is the document which evidences or proves ownership of the property.

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(246)
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(103)

Torrens system

the Torrens system is a system of title registration introduced in South Australia, in 1858.

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(4)

transaction costs

transaction costs are the costs associated with the transaction of property.

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(518)

trust

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(32)
(442)
(462)
(1,046)
(397)

unclaimed lands

Unclaimed land is land for which there is no owner or claimant.

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(6)

urban areas

Urban areas as defined by the Census Bureau are densely-populated areas with at least 50,000 people ("urbanized areas") and densely-populated areas with 2,500 to 50,000 people ("urban clusters").

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(2,975)

urban forestry

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(62)

urban land

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(18)

urban planning

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(463)

urban population

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(599)

urbanization

Synonyms: 
urbanisation
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(1,335)
(233)

use rights

These are rights to use the land for agriculture, grazing, gathering of forestry products, etc. The right to use land is one of the essential rights of landownership, but may also be the right to use and profit from immovable property as if the user were the owner (usufruct).
 

Source: FAO Land Tenure Manuals, No.2, FAO, 2006

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usufruct

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utility networks

Network describing the legal space of the topology of a utility

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(1)
(165)

VGGT

Synonyms: 
Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure 
Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGT) are an international instrument that can be used by many different actors to improve the governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests. The VGGT serve as a reference and set out principles and internationally accepted standards for the practices of responsible governance of tenure.

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(1,084)

waste (abuse)

Waste technically refers to the owner's right to change the nature of the land whether for better or for worse, although the most common interpretation is of abuse of the land.

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waste land

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(1)

water

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(14)

water management

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(2,951)

water rights

The right to abstract, use and transfer water. It also includes the ownership of water. Usually in the form of a permit, but water rights can have different sources such as custom (established use) or ownership of (riparian) land.

 

Source: FAOLEX
 

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wetlands

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(3)

women

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(155)

youth

Synonyms: 
young people
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(441)
(659)

zoning

Designation and reservation under a master plan of land use for light and heavy industry, dwellings, offices, and other buildings; use is enforced by restrictions on types of buildings in each zone.
 

Source: MGH/GEMET

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By Countries

By types of resources

  • Institutional & promotional materials (845)

    Institutional and promotional materials for an organization, such as annual reports and brochures.

  • Journal Articles & Books (15,135)

    Under this resource type, typically you will find land-related information with a more scientific approach. Examples... more

    • Peer-reviewed publication (1,989)

      A peer-reviewed publication is a subcategory under Journal Articles & Books, in the sense that it is an article... more

  • Legislation & Policies (1,870)

    Besides publications and articles about land governance, the Land Library also hosts country-level laws and policies... more

    • Agreements & Contracts (846)

      The final Legislation & Policies subcategory is Agreements & Contracts. This subcategory includes metadata... more

    • Constitution (329)

      A constitution is the highest level of national legislation. Many countries have included land-related provisions in... more

    • International Conventions or Treaties (107)

      The Land Portal identifies International Conventions or Treaties as a subcategory of Legislation & Policies.... more

    • Jurisprudence (14)

      With jurisprudence, the Land Portal identifies case law, or law that has been established by the outcome of former... more

    • Legislation (7,295)

      With the legislation subcategory, the Land Portal identifies any formal laws on a national level. A formal law is... more

    • National Policies (409)

      A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol, accepted and implemented on... more

    • Other legal document (44)

      While the Land Portal prefers to avoid using a category such as "Other" in metadata - since it does not provide a... more

    • Regulations (8,005)

      Regulations is used as the general term for lower-level law (below a constitution or statutory law). The category is... more

    • UN Resolutions (6)

      A United Nations resolution (UN resolution) is a formal text adopted by a United Nations (UN) body. Although any UN... more

  • Manuals & Guidelines (478)

    The Manuals and Guidelines-resource type on the Land Portal brings together all the types of resources that aim to... more

  • Multimedia (459)

    The multimedia category is fairly self-explanatory in the sense that it contains all non-bibliographic resources... more

    • Maps (21)

      For a topic as land governance maps are an extremely important tool. Many organizations and information providers... more

    • Videos (89)

      The Land Portal hosts many interesting videos related to land governance. These can be embedded in the pages or... more

  • Policy Papers & Briefs (3,768)

    The Policy Papers & Briefs resource type is meant for publications and resources that contain policy directions... more

  • Reports & Research (10,374)

    Reports & Research is a resource type for publications where research was involved in establishing the report,... more

  • Training Resources & Tools (484)

    This category includes resources on different types of tools and strategies to address land governance issues as... more

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