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BTI 2022 Country Report — Togo

Reports & Research
April, 2022

The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. Throughout the survey period, demands for political change initiated by institutional and electoral reforms were a major issue of contention between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime. These demonstrations were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the opposition’s demands.


Customary Land Recognition: Zambian Approach to Documentation and Administration

Reports & Research
December, 2018

From January 15 to February 6, 2018, the USAID’s Tenure and Global Climate Change Program and Land Portal Foundation co-facilitated a dialogue on experiences of documenting household and community-level customary rights in Zambia. The dialogue brought together the perspectives of government, traditional leaders, practitioners, civil society, and academics to consider how customary land documentation can contribute to national development goals and increased service delivery in rural and peri-urban areas.

Model Law on Access to Information for Africa and other regional instruments:Soft law and human rights in Africa

Journal Articles & Books
November, 2018

The adoption in 2013 of the Model Law on Access to Information for Africa by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights is an important landmark in the increasing elaboration of human rights-related soft law standards in Africa. Although non-binding, the Model Law significantly influenced the access to information landscape on the continent. Since the adoption of the Model Law, the Commission adopted several General Comments. The AU similarly adopted Model Laws such as the African Union Model Law on Internally Displaced Persons in Addressing Internal Displacement in Africa.

A Community-Based Practitioner’s Guide: Documenting Citizenship and Other Forms of Legal Identity

Manuals & Guidelines
May, 2018

This guide provides step-by-step instructions on establishing and operating a paralegal or other community-based program to help people obtain legal identity documents. It is primarily for people designing and managing community-based paralegal projects to help clients access documentary proof of citizenship and other forms of proof of legal identity, such as birth certificates.

A legislação sobre o acesso aos recursos naturais em Moçambique: o impacto das novas leis e das consultas comunitárias sobre o bem-estar a nível local

Reports & Research
September, 2017

Este relatório considera um dos aspectos práticos mais importantes da participação
local na Lei de Terras e outra legislação sobre recursos naturais: a consulta
comunitária, através da qual os estranhos – o Estado, novos investidores, empresas
madeireiras, grupos de hotéis – obtêm acesso à terra e recursos locais com a

Juana y la Comunidad Tres Islas contra la minería ilegal

Reports & Research
April, 2017

La siguiente es la trascripción casi literal de una larga conversación sostenida con Juana Payaba, expresidenta de la Comunidad Nativa Tres Islas, la única comunidad del departamento de Madre de Dios, en el sureste peruano, que ha logrado el reconocimiento de sus derechos consuetudinarios como pueblo indígena. La lucha de los comuneros de Tres Islas contra los mineros ilegales que invadieron

Brunei Darussalam in 2016

Peer-reviewed publication
January, 2017
Brunei Darussalam

Brunei continued in 2016 to suffer from declining oil and gas prices. The budget deficit grew. The Sultan made economic diversification and ‘‘prudent spending’’ the year’s central political themes. He criticized several government institutions during ‘‘surprise visits’’ and sharply attacked the Ministry of Religious Affairs for ‘‘delaying’’ the full enforcement of an Islamic legal reform.

K E Y W O R D S : Brunei, oil price crisis, economic diversification, legal reforms, Sharia

I sistemi europei di registrazione immobiliare: panorama generale

Peer-reviewed publication
June, 2016

Il presente lavoro offre una panoramica generale dei sistemi di registrazione immobiliare in Europa. L’analisi comparatistica parte dalla distinzione dei sistemi giuridici di trasmissione della proprietà all’interno delle due grandi famiglie del “Civil Law” e del “Common Law”. Su tali basi, infatti, poggiano gli istituti giuridici e le organizzazioni nazionali che soprintendono alla registrazione immobiliare. Sono stati esaminati pertanto i vari sistemi di “Land Registration” con riferimento ai principali fattori caratterizzanti,

Mali Financial Sector Assessment Program

Reports & Research
Training Resources & Tools
December, 2015

A country’s legal and judicial environment can help or hinder access to credit. In addition to the banking law governing the organization of the sector, the operations of credit institutions are subject to several laws. Four components of Malian business law are particularly relevant in assessing the position of creditors, the law on secured transactions, the law on collective proceedings, the law on information-sharing related to debtors (sometimes called the credit reporting law), and the law on collection and enforcement proceedings.

State Lands and Land Laws: A Hand Book

Conference Papers & Reports
November, 2015
Sri Lanka

The state owns over 80% of the land in Sri Lanka. The remainder is owned by private parties. Under the State Lands Encroachments Ordinance, all waste lands, forest lands, unoccupied and uncultivated lands are presumed to belong to the state until the contrary is proved (section 7) and all cinnamon land which have been uninterruptedly possessed by the state for over 30 years are held and deemed to belong to the state (section 6).