This Act concerns the rights in and management of mineral resources in Nigeria. It provides rules for exploration and exploitation of resources and for the protection of the environment. It also concerns possession of mining material, small-scale mining and the protection of interests of host communities, provides incentives for mining operations and defines offences.“Minerals” excludes petroleum but includes water with mineral content. The Act establishes within the Ministry the Mines Inspectorate Department and the Mines Environmental Compliance Department and defines their functions. It also establishes a Solid Minerals Development Fund. Eligible persons may apply for a reconnaissance permit, an exploration licence, a small-scale mining lease, a mining lease a quarry lease or a water use permit. Land issues shall be referred to the Land Use and Allocation Committee of the relevant State. Holders of leases shall conclude with the host community a Community Development Agreement. The Act defines obligations of holders of mining titles respecting the environment and requires holders of permits, licences or leases to carry out environmental impact assessment and to submit such assessment and an Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation Program to the Mines Environmental Compliance Department. The Minister shall establish an Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation Fund for purposes of guaranteeing environmental obligations of holders of mineral titles. The Act defines several obligations of holders of mineral titles in respect of the use of water resources.
Repeals: Minerals and Mining Decree (No. 34 of 1999). (1999-05-10)
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British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed.