Intergovernmental or Multilateral organization

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. We are not a bank in the ordinary sense but a unique partnership to reduce poverty and support development. The World Bank Group has two ambitious goals: End extreme poverty within a generation and boost shared prosperity.

  • To end extreme poverty, the Bank's goal is to decrease the percentage of people living on less than $1.25 a day to no more than 3% by 2030.
  • To promote shared prosperity, the goal is to promote income growth of the bottom 40% of the population in each country.

The World Bank Group comprises five institutions managed by their member countries.

The World Bank Group and Land: Working to protect the rights of existing land users and to help secure benefits for smallholder farmers

The World Bank (IBRD and IDA) interacts primarily with governments to increase agricultural productivity, strengthen land tenure policies and improve land governance. More than 90% of the World Bank’s agriculture portfolio focuses on the productivity and access to markets by small holder farmers. Ten percent of our projects focus on the governance of land tenure.

Similarly, investments by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the World Bank Group’s private sector arm, including those in larger scale enterprises, overwhelmingly support smallholder farmers through improved access to finance, inputs and markets, and as direct suppliers. IFC invests in environmentally and socially sustainable private enterprises in all parts of the value chain (inputs such as irrigation and fertilizers, primary production, processing, transport and storage, traders, and risk management facilities including weather/crop insurance, warehouse financing, etc

For more information, visit the World Bank Group and land and food security (

World Bank Group Resources

Displaying 3881 - 3890 of 4593
March 2012

This paper uses district level data to
estimate the general relationship between climate, income
and life expectancy in Peru. The analysis finds that both
incomes and life expectancy show hump-shaped relationships,
with optimal average annual temperatures around 18-20ºC.
These estimated relationships were used to simulate the
likely effects of both past (1958-2008) and future
(2008-2058) climate change. At the aggregate level, future

March 2012
Central Asia

Many cities across Europe and Central
Asia are experiencing the impacts of climate change, but
most have not integrated climate adaptation into their
agendas. This paper examines the threats faced and measures
that can be taken by cities in the region to protect
buildings, heritage sites, municipal functions, and
vulnerable urban populations. In general, local governments
must be proactive in ensuring that existing buildings are

March 2012

Size, age, sector, and productivity are
commonly cited as factors determining a firm s survival.
However, there are several dimensions of the investment
climate in which the firm operates that affect whether it
continues in business or exits. This paper uses new panel
data from 27 Eastern European and Central Asian countries to
test the importance of five areas of the business climate on
firm exit: the efficiency of government services, access to

March 2012
Sierra Leone

Seven years out of brutal conflict,
Sierra Leone is now a peaceful and stable country. Yet, its
strides toward economic recovery and competitiveness have
been modest even in sectors such as tourism, which used to
be a major generator of foreign exchange revenues prior to
the conflict. This paper presents a cluster-based analysis
of the tourism sector in Sierra Leone. The analysis shows
that tourism in Sierra Leone draws entirely on basic factor

March 2012

China has seen a huge reduction in the
incidence of extreme poverty since the economic reforms that
started in the late 1970s. Yet, the growth process has been
highly uneven across sectors and regions. The paper tests
whether the pattern of China´s growth mattered to poverty
reduction using a new provincial panel data set constructed
for this purpose. The econometric tests support the view
that the primary sector (mainly agriculture) has been the

March 2012

Using a nested multinomial logit model
of car ownership and personal travel in Beijing circa 2005,
this paper compares the effectiveness of different policy
instruments to reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions.
The study shows that a congestion toll is more efficient
than a fuel tax in reducing traffic congestion, whereas a
fuel tax is more effective as a policy instrument for
reducing gasoline consumption and emissions. An improvement

March 2012

Mitigation investments in long-lived
capital stock (LLKS) differ from other types of mitigation
investments in that, once established, LLKS can lock-in a
stream of emissions for extended periods of time. Moreover,
historical examples from industrial countries suggest that
investments in LLKS projects or networks tend to be lumpy,
and tend to generate significant indirect and induced
emissions besides direct emissions. Looking forward,

March 2012

Well-functioning groups enforce social
norms that restrain opportunism, but the social structure of
a society may encourage or inhibit norm enforcement. This
paper studies how the exogenous assignment to different
positions in an extreme social hierarchy - the caste system
- affects individuals' willingness to punish violations
of a cooperation norm. Although the analysis controls for
individual wealth, education, and political participation,

March 2012

The paper assesses the costs and
household level benefits of migrating overseas from
Bangladesh. The authors survey households who have had
overseas migrants to assess their characteristics compared
to non-migrants. They also compute various types of
migration and remittance related transaction costs and
discuss the channels by which overseas migration is
financed, remittances sent and the constraints faced by the

March 2012

In the urban planning literature, it is
frequently explicitly asserted or strongly implied that
ongoing urban sprawl and decentralization can lead to
development patterns that are unsustainable in the long run.
One manifestation of such an outcome is that if extensive
road investments occur, urban sprawl and decentralization
are advanced and locked-in, making subsequent investments in
public transit less effective in reducing vehicle kilometers

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