Zambia - Context and Land Governance | Land Portal
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Zambia has a bifurcated land tenure system which results from a legacy of colonial land administration [1][2]. Under the British governor in 1928, Zambian land was divided into crown land and reserve native land [3][4]. Later in 1947 the Native Trust Order was passed which gave birth to trust land [4]. Crown land made up 6 percent of the country, while native and trust land both totaled up to 94 percent [1]. After independence, crown land was converted to state land. Reserve native and trust land remained as such until the 1995 Land Act at which point these tenure types began being labeled as "customary" land [4].

Zambia is one of the more highly urbanised countries in Africa. Urban population is estimated to be slightly above 40 percent of the total population [16]. Global copper price fluctuations [16], better employment and educational opportunities and other social amenities in cities influence the process of urbanization in the country.  Zambia current land use is 66.1 percent is forestland; 5.1 percent is arable land; 0.1 is permanent crops; and 28.7 percent is others [22]. As a response to economic triggers in certain regions of the country, urbanisation has impacted land use trends. Media reports on illegal occupations of land in peri-urban areas have heightened attributed to unplanned development; increase in value of peri-urban land; rural-urban migration; mining; and housing development by private developers [23]. Other drivers include elite capture; unclear structures of property rights in affected areas; including weak government planning and regulatory frameworks especially in the face of multinational companies that are not accountable under international law [23].

Currently, there are major issues plaguing land governance in Zambia, including cases of uncontrolled and ungoverned customary land allocations [6], corruption in urban land allocation, and political cadreism in land allocation in both urban and peri-urban and rural areas [7]. Exogenous factors such as those underpinning large scale land acquisition (LSLAs) and the evolution of customary practices in response to socio-economic national dynamics put pressure on land and related resources. This compromises management regimes of customary land in the country. Land-based investments, such as the US$8billion Smart Resort City by Sirpryze Continental Zambia Limited planned on over 40,000ha in Senior Chief Kalasa Mukoso’s chiefdom in Luapula province [8], continue to pose threat on local communities. These investments also threaten local enterprising individuals such as John Mulenga [9] who has been working hard to build an agri-business that has been hailed by the Zambia National Farmers Union.

 

 

The VGGT in Zambia

Zambia is a member  of the United Nations Committee on World Food Security (CFS), and has endorsed the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGT) on 11 May 2012. The CFS at its 38th (Special Session) on 11 May 2012, among other points: i) endorsed the VGGT; ii) noted that the VGGT are voluntary and not legally binding; and iii) encouraged all stakeholders to promote, make use of and support the implementation of the VGGT when formulating relevant strategies, policies and programmes. (See FAO Council Report of the 38th (Special) Session of the Committee on World Food Security (11 May 2012), Rome, 11-15 June 2012). In addition, Zambia endorsed the VGGT at the 2014 Global Forum for Food and Agriculture. The summary of Results of the Global Forum for Food and Agriculture 2014, states that, among others,"We, the agriculture ministers assembled at the GFFA: […] establish and protect tenure rights to land, forests and fishing grounds as well as water rights for all – in particular vulnerable people – as a basic prerequisite for sustainable farming in line with the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security (CFS).

The VGGT are being used to advance gender-equitable governance of tenure in Zambia. Read more.

 

Policy, legal and organizational frameworks

The Land Acquisition Act of 1970 inspired the ‘zambianisation’ (nationalisation) program, which sealed the deal of the 1975 Land (Conversion of Titles) Act ] that halted freehold tenure system in Zambia [4]. All land in Zambia has since then been vested in the President, who holds it in perpetuity on behalf of the Zambian people [3].

The Lands Act 1995 allowed for conversion of customary land into leasehold titles, thereby creating land markets and causing a surge in land transactions in the country [5]. Consequently, through a Presidential Decree passed in 2002, it became possible to establish farm blocks on customary land in nine provinces. Property rights are conceived as social conventions by which individuals legally lay a ‘claim to a benefit or income stream that the state will agree to protect through the assignment of duty to others who may covet, or somehow interfere with, the benefit stream’ [10]. Constitutionally, land in Zambia cannot be owned [11]. Occupants only have access and user rights. In addition, the right to land does not include the right to access and use forests and related resources. The rights to land are not permanent as the President can, if deemed to be in national interest, expropriate the land [11]. The occupant in this case is constitutionally obliged to yield. The occupant can submit claim to the Minister of Lands who will respond to serve the claimant with a notice to yield within a period not less than two months, but subject to how urgently the land might be needed as certified by the President.  When titled state land is acquired in this manner, the occupant must be monetarily compensated from Parliamentary funds established for this purpose, otherwise, they are compensated through “a grant of other land not exceeding in value the value of the land acquired, for an estate not exceeding the estate acquired and upon the same terms and conditions, as far as may be practicable, as those under which the land acquired was held" [12].

The draft Lands Policy (2015) acknowledges the bias the current land administration has towards state land, and the informality of customary land [13]. The Policy proposes a comprehensive land management system that recognises that customary land rights have the same weight and validity as those held under leased land. Moving forward, the government intends to invest in land reforms focusing on land mapping, auditing and titling to streamline land administration and management, make it more robust, transparent and ensure efficient land allocation [14]. Occupants on titled land have to pay taxes in form of land rents, and therefore, this process broadens the revenue collection base of the government.

 

Transparency

The following transparency-related scores are listed for Zambia in the Land Governance Assessment Framework carried out by the World Bank in 2016.

Transparency of land use restrictions: changes in land use and management regulations are made in a transparent fashion and provide significant benefits for society in general rather than just for specific groups.

  • Process of urban expansion/infrastructure development process is transparent and respects existing rights: Weak Practice.
  • Changes in urban land use plans are based on a clear public process and input by all stakeholders: Good Practice.
  • Approved requests for change in urban land use are swiftly followed by development on these parcels of land: Very Weak Practice.

Transparency and fairness of acquisition procedures: acquisition procedures are clear andtransparent and fair compensation is paid expeditiously:

  • Compensation is provided for the acquisition of all rights regardless of their recording status: Weak Practice.
  • Selective loss of rights arising from land use change is compensated for: Good Practice.
  • Acquired owners are compensated promptly: Very Good Practice.
  • There are independent and accessible avenues for appeal against acquisition: Good Practice.
  • Timely decisions are made regarding complaints about acquisition: Very Good Practice.

Transparency of valuations: valuations are based on clear principles, applied uniformly, updated regularly, and publicly accessible. Describe the process of fixing and revising land valuation.

  • There is a clear process of property valuation: Weak Practice.
  • Valuation rolls are publicly accessible: Very Good Practice.
Read the full LGAF report for Zambia and browse Transparency International data from the Global corruption barometer to find out more about corruption in the land sector in Zambia.
Gender and land

Zambia is one of the countries where the scope of large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) is hard to understand. There is lack of data on the scope of land acquisitions [23]. Nonetheless, land is being given out to foreign investors, particularly of Chinese origin who are able to go to rural areas where others are reluctant to go. National elites are also involved. There has been a scramble for land in Zambia that has not been controlled despite calls from civil society organisations, including the President himself.

With the intention to promote investments, the government gave the mandate to Zambia Development Agency to look for investors to invest in land. The government itself has therefore, been an agent promoting LSLA. However, since land administration is restricted to state land, many investor choose to deal directly with traditional authorities who they corrupt with some money far below the value of land. These investors can start developing the land even before the title deeds are granted through the government land administration channels. While there is a level of legal order in the administration of state land, there is none on customary land where LSLAs actually happen.

Constitutionally, where the beneficiary is entitled, they are compensated "in respect of the unexhausted improvements on unutilised land, provided that such compensation shall be limited to the value, for the purpose for which the land is acquired, of such unexhausted improvements" [12].  For compensations involving customary land, it is a negotiation between the affected communities and the investor. This poses problems because of the power differentials between communities who are poor with humble education levels, if any, and the investors who have the financial stamina, educated and know the value of land and mostly connected to government officials. Reports from Nansanga farm block and Kalumbila mine indicate that communities do not receive what they are promised in terms of compensation [24]. Even when communities are promised what to be given, they are often not considered equal partners in land investment projects. Currently, despite the wave of LSLAs in the country and huge media coverage on it, the Ministry of Lands where the presiding authority in land matters sits, is only a stakeholder in the resettlement policy for people disadvantaged due to LSLAs [15]. With multiple stakeholders, the lead institution in the resettlement policy is the Office of the Vice President through the Department of Resettlement. Rights of smallholders are not adequately protected in the country [13].

"the current statutory laws do not discriminate against anyone on the basis of gender. The Government has however, recognised that women still lack control over land especially in customary areas as opposed to lacking access that they gain through their male relatives. The reason for this lies in customary practices." [20] [25]. The National Agricultural Policy, the draft Lands Policy and the Lands Acts 1995 and 2015 are also written in gender-neutral [26]. However, due to economic factors, ideology and power differentials [27] women do not enjoy the same opportunities of access to properties in general, and to land in particular. When land is being leased, one of the conditions is proof that the interested party is capable of developing the land. However, many women especially in rural areas do not have the same level of access to financial means to favourably compete with men.

Some cultural norms do not grant women land rights that are equal to those of men. Women in patrilineal societies with virilocal marriages do not have title to land, and those in uxorilocal marriage communities, male family members control the use of the land [26].  Additionally, women on customary land, de jure and de facto, do not benefit from any legal protection because customary land does not have any legal institutions and frameworks to administer it [15]. In terms of accessing financial services that would need land as collateral, women on customary land are therefore, unable to access the services. They may live onvaluable but not valued land because the land lacks legal documentation. Socio-economic disparities, cultural norms and lack of legal documentation for customary land pose challenges to women regarding their access to land. 

The law recognises these challenges and views women as victims. Currently, Intestate Succession Act 1989, the National Gender Policy 2000, the Climate Change Gender Action Plan 2016, the Marriage Act, the Village Act and the Mining Act constitute important legal provisions on gender in the country [26][28]. The draft Land policy (2015) has proactively guided that 30 percent of state land will be allocated to women, and 70 percent will be competed for by both men and women [28]. To reflect the socio-economic disadvantaged positions that women have, the government proposed in the Sixth National Development Plan that there be increased representation of women in decision-making positions and in formal employment from 21 percent in 2010 to 30 percent in 2015 [29]. Due to poor policy implementation, when land is acquired, women are disproportionately affected. Household responsibilities are highly gendered in rural areas.  Collecting firewood for domestic use depends on having access and user rights to land and associated resources. This is a woman’s responsibility, culturally. Generally, women are confined to responsibilities that are not as economically rewarding as those of men. Women hold higher proportion of seasonal jobs compared to men who hold more permanent positions on out-grower farms [29]. Land problems primarily affect women’s abilities to improve themselves, provide for families and to care for children. In this way, LSLAs exacerbate the vulnerable socio-economic situation of women, locking them further in the cycle of poverty that most investments on land promise to get them out of. Improving the precarious women-land relationship in the country will require eliminating the cultural norms that hinder female participation in land rights, providing land rights information, ensuring legal protection of customary land tenure, and improving land administration and enforcement of policies such as the 30 percent land allocation to women in the National Gender Policy 2000 [28]. 

Browse the FAO gender and land rights database for more information on gender and land in Zambia.

 
Legal recognition and allocation of tenure rights

Based on the English Property Law, customary and statutory land tenure systems exist in Zambia [13]. The administration and institutional arrangements for land in the country concern only state land [15]. However, institutional frameworks are applied when customary tenure is converted to leasehold to pave way for any land-based investments. Land can be leased on a renewable 99-year lease, subject to non-breach of contract agreement to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Lands as the presiding authority [16]. Freehold was introduced in Zambia with the establishment of crown land in 1928. Freehold was abolished in 1975 with existing rights relegated to 100 years of statutory land leases. 

State land is directly under the jurisdiction of the State through the Commissioner of Lands at the Ministry of Lands that is appointed to represent the President in land matters [17]. Formerly crown land, state land is formalised and occupants pay taxes. The Lands Act 2015 outlines 10 conditions that would allow non-Zambians to have access and user rights to land.

 

Investments

Zambia is one of the countries where the scope of large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) is hard to understand. There is lack of data on the scope of land acquisitions [23]. Nonetheless, land is being given out to foreign investors, particularly of Chinese origin who are able to go to rural areas where others are reluctant to go. National elites are also involved. There has been a scramble for land in Zambia that has not been controlled despite calls from civil society organisations, including the President himself.

With the intention to promote investments, the government gave the mandate to Zambia Development Agency to look for investors to invest in land. The government itself has therefore, been an agent promoting LSLA. However, since land administration is restricted to state land, many investor choose to deal directly with traditional authorities who they corrupt with some money far below the value of land. These investors can start developing the land even before the title deeds are granted through the government land administration channels. While there is a level of legal order in the administration of state land, there is none on customary land where LSLAs actually happen.

Constitutionally, where the beneficiary is entitled, they are compensated "in respect of the unexhausted improvements on unutilized land, provided that such compensation shall be limited to the value, for the purpose for which the land is acquired, of such unexhausted improvements" [12].  For compensations involving customary land, it is a negotiation between the affected communities and the investor. This poses problems because of the power differentials between communities who are poor with humble education levels, if any, and the investors who have the financial stamina, educated and know the value of land and mostly connected to government officials. Reports from Nansanga farm block and Kalumbila mine indicate that communities do not receive what they are promised in terms of compensation [24]. Even when communities are promised what to be given, they are often not considered equal partners in land investment projects. Currently, despite the wave of LSLAs in the country and huge media coverage on it, the Ministry of Lands where the presiding authority in land matters sits, is only a stakeholder in the resettlement policy for people disadvantaged due to LSLAs [15]. With multiple stakeholders, the lead institution in the resettlement policy is the Office of the Vice President through the Department of Resettlement. Rights of smallholders are not adequately protected in the country [13].

Zambia is both urbanized and highly regionalized on tribal lines. Areas far from urban centres are still very less mixed with people from other parts of the country. This holds together the social and cultural fabric of communities. Opening up these areas to investments has introduced new elements in the areas that have weakened that sense of social and cultural belonging, thereby weakening the social capital of communities. Other impacts include exposure to diseases, transformation of income sources and livelihoods in general, and loss of access and user rights to land, forests and associated resources [23].

Zambia has pro-investor policies, and the country is endowed with natural resources that attract investors. About 40 percent of freshwater in the Southern region moves through Zambia. The country has also a history of being a peace haven in the region, a home to many refugees from the great lakes region. It is a politically stable country, guaranteeing security for investments. With over 70 percent of the population involved in agriculture, labour is not only cheap, but it is also abundantly available. Since government institutions are generally weak, some investors take advantage to do business cheaply by cutting corners that would otherwise increase their operational costs. Consequently, the levels of land degradation from deforestation and forest degradation are quite unprecedented. On the Copperbelt, for example, the Kafue River is polluted by mining operations. Tailing dams are also a concern. The phenomenon of squatters in peri-urban areas has also been on the rise due to uncontrolled land allocation and lack of land use planning [23].

In Zambia, there is rampant illegal land allocation, particularly in peri-urban and rural areas on customary land. The Ministry of Lands is institutionally under-staffed. To make up for this, the Ministry works with local councils at lower administrative levels to handle land related matters [20]. The media reports are ubiquitous on abuse of power by some local authorities in illegal land allocation. There is also political interference from political sympathisers (cadres as they are called) of the ruling party in land administration.

Regarding gaining leasehold title on customary land, land acquisition is a negotiation with a traditional authority. Upon agreement, the chief issues an approval letter which is taken to the District Council. At this stage, the Chief’s role ends. The District Council sends a recommendation letter to the Commissioner of Lands, who either approves the request, or for requests involving more than 1,000 ha, submits a letter to the President for his approval [18]. In reserve lands, Zambian nationals are eligible for 99 years of leasehold, and 99 years of occupancy rights in trust lands [19]. The Lands Act 2015 does not spell out any specifics about compensation for local communities whose land is acquired for investments. This remains a matter of negotiation between the parties involved. After the lease is issued and signed by the applicant, it is returned to the Lands Commissioner for the issuance of the title deed from the registrar [19]. Once the applicant is in receipt of the lease from the Commissioner of Lands, every lessee is required to take up residence on the holding within 6 months of the commencement of the lease failure to which land is forfeited [20].  Under weak land governance in Zambia [21] the laxity in the application of the law is giving rise to conflicts between local communities and land lessees as investors [23].

Expropriation and compensation

Section 3 of the Land Acquisition Act, 1970 states "the President may, whenever he is of the opinion that it is desirable or expedient in the interests of the Republic so to do, compulsorily acquire any property of any description… Read more and browse the qualitative dataset developed by Tagliarino (2018) to assess how national laws in Zambia measure up against the international standard on expropriation and resettlement as established by VGGT section 16.

References

[1] Adams, M. (2003). Land tenure policy and practice in Zambia: issues relating to the development of the agricultural sector. Draft Document for DFID. Lusaka, Zambia. http://www.mokoro.co.uk/files/13/file/lria/land_tenure_policy_and_practice_zambia.pdf

[2] Smith, R. E. (2004). Land tenure, fixed investment, and farm productivity: Evidence from Zambia’s southern province. World Development, 32(10 SPEC.ISS.), 1641–1661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.05.006

[3] Malambo, A. H. (2014). Land Administration in Zambia After 1991: History, Opportunities and Challenges From the 1995 Lands Act. Journal of Geography and Geology, 6(1), 139–154. http://landportal.info/library/resources/land-administration-zambia-after-1991

[4] Ng’ombe, A., Keivani, R., Mattingly, M., & Stubbs, M. (2014). Impacts of Privatization of Customary Land Rights in Zambia: A Comparative Study of Rural and Peri-urban Locations. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(6), 1985–2007. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12184

[5] Nolte, K. (2014). Large-scale agricultural investments under poor land governance in Zambia. Land Use Policy, 38, 698–706. Availabe at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/large-scale-agricultural-invest...,

[6] Kaluba, A. (2016). “Inheriting a field or feud: land crisis in Zambia” in Times of Zambia of December 25, 2016. http://www.times.co.zm/?p=91481

[7] Lusaka Times (2017). “PF suspends 8 members over illegal land allocation” in Lusaka Times of April 13, 2017.  https://www.lusakatimes.com/2017/04/13/pf-suspends-8-members-illegal-land-allocation/  

[8] Times of Zambia Newspaper. (2017). “Kudos to Sirpryze for Samfya resort plans” in Times of Zambia of July 18, 2017

[9] Zainab, P. (2016). Zambia National Farmers Union’s Zambian Farmer Magazine, August 2016 Issue

[10] Sjaastad, E., & Bromley, D. W. (2000). The prejudices of property rights: On individualism, specificity, and security in property regimes. Development Policy Review, 18(4), 365–389. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7679.00117

[11] (GRZ). (2016). The Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) http://landportal.info/library/resources/landwiserecord915item986/zambia-constitution-constitution-republic-zambia

[12] GRZ. (2006). Chapter 189 of the Lands Acquisition Act. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/lands-acquisition-act1970

[13] Mushinge, A., & Mulenga, S. (2016). Legal Pluralism and Tenure Security: Exploring the Relationship between Statutory and Customary Land Tenure in Zambia. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 4(3), 7–17. http://landportal.info/library/resources/issn-2324-8033-e-issn-2324-8041/legal-pluralism-and-tenure-security

[14] Government of Zambia (GRZ). (2017). The Seventh National Development Plan. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/seventh-national-development-pl...

[15] Machina, H. (2002). Women’s Land Rights in Zambia : Policy Provisions , Legal Framework and Constraints. Available at:  http://landportal.info/library/resources/landwiserecord701item751/women%E2%80%99s-land-rights-zambia-policy-provisions-legal

[16] Üllenberg, A., Minah, M., Rauch, T., Richter, D., and Beckmann, G. (2017). Zambia : Towards Inclusive and Sustainable Rural Transformation. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/1433-4585/zambia 

[17] Spichiger, R., and Kabala, E. (2014). Gender equality and land administration: the case of Zambia. DIIS working paper. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/landwiserecord2623item2645/gend...

[18] German, L., Schoneveld, G., and Mwangi, E. (2013). Contemporary Processes of Large-Scale Land Acquisition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Legal Deficiency or Elite Capture of the Rule of Law? World Development, 48, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.03.006

[19] Bruce, J. Kachamba, F. and Hansungule, M. (1995). Land Administration in Zambia: Processes and Constraints. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/land-administration. 

[20] Roth, M., Smith, S. G., (1995). Land Tenure, Land Markets, and Institutional Transformation in Zambia, an LTC research paper. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/agrisus201300111907/land-tenure-land-markets-and-institutional-transformation.

[21] Loenen, B. van. (1999). Land Tenure in Zambia. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/land-tenure-zambia

[22] FAO. (2015).  Zambia FAO Stat: Land use and Agricultural Inputs http://zambia.opendataforafrica.org/yuyskrf/zambia-fao-stat-land-use-and-agricultural-inputs

[23] Munshifwa, E. K. (2017). Land grabbing and peri-urban development. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/land-grabbing-and-peri-urban-development

[24] Sambo, P., Haywood, C., Wardell, D., & Kibugi, R. (2015). Enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land use investments in Zambia: Legal assessment report. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/ciforsustainablelanduseinvestme...

[25] GRZ. (2006). Draft Land Administration and Management Policy. Available at: http://landportal.info/library/resources/draft-land-administration-and-m...

[26] Nkonkomalimba, M. (2014). Land administration in Zambia: Gender profile. http://zambiagovernance.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Land-rights-factsheet-PDF.pdf 

[27] Lastarria-Cornhiel, S. (1997). Impact of Privatization on Gender and Property Rights in Africa. World Development, 25(8), 1317–1333. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00030-2

[28] Zambia Land Alliance (2015). Submissions to the Committee on Lands, Environment and Tourism on the Women's Rights to Land in Zambia www.zla.org.zm/.../SUBMISSION-TO-THE-COMMITTEE-ON-LANDS-Gender1.doc

[29] Wonani, M. Mbuta, S.W., and Mkandawire, M.A. (2013). The Gender and Equity Implications of Land-Related Investments on Land Access and Labour and Income-Generating Opportunities: A Case Study of Selected Agricultural Investments in Zambia. http://landportal.info/library/resources/landwiserecord1844item1859/gender-and-equity-implications-land-related-investments

 

Peer review

Peer reviewed by Dr. Matt Sommerville, Chief of Party, Tenure and Global Climate Change Project (Tetra Tech).

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Forest land administered by governments: This category includes all forest land that is legally claimed as exclusively belonging to the state.

Measurement unit: 
Million ha

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit: 
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - formally recognised by the State - as a percentage of the country's total land area.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)
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Share (%) of Forest Land with respect to the Total Land Area.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)
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It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha
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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops through cultivation or naturally (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee), land under trees and shrubs producing flowers (such as roses and jasmine), and n

Measurement unit: 
1'000 ha

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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