In the Mediterranean mountain areas of NW Syria, land degradation is a serious problem (Masri et al, 2005). Olive orchards dominate the landscape in Afrin area, and olive oil represents the most important cash income source for rural communities in this area. However, olive yields in many orchards have been decreasing steadily over the last 20 years. Low return to labour has resulted in livelihood insecurity, increased reliance on off-farm labour, and out-migration.
The major reason for the yield decline is the severe land degradation taking place in this region. Deforestation, expansion of olive production into steeper areas, and inappropriate land management accelerated the rate of soil. Especially the replacement of mule tillage by the cheaper tractor tillage during the 1970’s has caused an acceleration of the rate of land degradation. At the hills of Afrin District, the widespread presence of ephemeral and permanent gullies is a clear indicator of the severity of this problem. (Up-and-down) tractor tillage not only moves down sizable amounts of soil during every tillage run, but the consequent vertical furrows promote water-induced soil erosion and gully formation. Gullies are formed by concentrated surface runoff which acts as a cutting agent (Geyik, 1986). It is not exceptional to see that the parent material is surfacing, indicating a complete loss of the surface soil layer.
In recognition that gullies are mere symptoms of ongoing degradation rather than the cause of degradation itself (Stocking et al, 2001), the main focus of this study was to identify the causes of gully systems. Understanding these causes is an essential requirement for developing effective soil conservation strategies (Morgan , 1995). Other objectives were the mapping of gully systems, testing a methodology for meso-scale survey of gully systems, and capacity building of extension agents. In the study area, there were two dominant soil types: red soils are usually formed on pure limestone (Luvisols on deeper soils, and Cambisols on more shallow soils), white soils are usually formed on clayey limestones or marls (Regosols or Cambisols).
Autores e editores
The purpose of the International Soil Conservation Organization is to advocate for the sustainable, productive, and efficient use of soil and water resources. It does so through communication among participants in its meetings, the goal of which is to improve understanding of natural resource management issues. A primary feature of ISCO is the “informal” structure whereby no official “Constitution,” “Bylaws,” or membership fees are formulated or enacted.
Provedor de dados
The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) was established in 1977. It is one of 15 such centers supported by the CGIAR. ICARDA’s founding mandate to promote agricultural development in the dry areas of developing countries remains highly relevant today.