Diffuse water pollution from agriculture (DWPA) is one of the major factors causing water pollution in Lakes Palić and Ludaš, the two largest shallow lakes of the Pannonian Basin in Serbia. These two lakes are protected under national and international law.
Both land expropriation and eviction constitute a threat to the properties and life of local communities. In Southern Cameroon, the phenomenon has increased with the implementation of structural projects to ensure the emergence of Cameroon by 2035 and the resumption of the control of urban space by the State.
In many cities and urban areas in Africa, land acquisition for urban redevelopment, land readjustment, and resettlement of affected urban residents are currently framed as innovative approaches to eradicating informal settlements, improving the living environments, and supporting the implementation of newly adopted city Master Plans.
Cameroon is currently witnessing an unprecedented wave of land-based investments, ranging from natural resources exploitation (oil, mining and gas), logging, large infrastructure building, etc. These developments happen in a context of population growth, in an increase in the domestic demand for land.
The economic development of a territory is strongly correlated to its level of infrastructure (railway, roads, etc.); the complexity of this type of works requires careful planning and design that cannot be separated from the assessment of the impacts generated on citizenship affected by the new infrastructures.
During land expropriation, it is difficult to form a real antagonistic relationship between farmers and the local Government due to disparities, which means the confrontations between them are difficult to administer. The confrontation between both parties could lead to the distortion of the farmers’ resisting logic, who are supposed to be in a vulnerable position.
Kigali city authorities have recently adopted an in-kind compensation option to mitigate some patterns of spatial injustices, reflected in the displacement of expropriated real property owners towards urban outskirts, where they can afford new properties using the in-cash compensation they receive.
In this study the involvement of the community during expropriation and the utilization of the compensation money of the expropriated farmers are investigated taking Bahir Dar and Debre Markos peri-urban areas as case studies. Survey research methods were applied for data collection. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics.
Urban regeneration and rural revitalization are becoming major policy initiatives in China, which requires new approaches for sustainability transitions. This paper reviewed the history of policy reforms and institutional changes and analysed the main challenges to sustainability transitions in China.