The Land Portal Foundation and Open Data Charter intend to implement the Open Up Guide for Land Governance in the period 2021 - 2024. As part of this project, we seek to develop State of Land Information (SOLI) reports for 10-12 countries in Africa and Latin America.
In 2002, Timor Leste emerged from a difficult colonial past under Portuguese and Indonesian rule. Since independence, the country has achieved substantial progress in combatting poverty and facilitating economic growth, mostly through hydrocarbon extraction and oil revenues. Nonetheless, the country still ranks among the poorest in Southeast Asia. The population lives mostly in the countryside off subsistence farming.
Under demands from Islamic nationalists, present-day Pakistan was created from the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947, and then the secession of Bangladesh in 1971. The total land area is 770,875 km2, not including disputed regions of Jammu and Kashmir (claimed by both Pakistan and India). Borders are to India, China, Afghanistan, Iran, and the Arabian Sea to the south. There is a rich diversity of landscapes, including mountains, desert, and river delta areas. Nevertheless, Pakistan is mainly a dry-land country, 80% arid or semi-arid, and with high levels of water scarcity.
Post-conflict situations remain strained for years and can easily relapse into violence during the first two decades. During this social, political, and economic transition phase, post-conflict countries are especially fragile and vulnerable. Increasingly acknowledged as a key driver or root cause for conflict, land is as much a critical relapse factor as it is a bottleneck to recovery . In the aftermath of war, access to and control of land and natural resources often remains a sensitive issue for years which may precipitate tensions and challenge stability. At the same time, resolving land-related issues is significant to achieve sustainable and durable peace. Yet, it is just one item on a long list of issues that need to be addressed in post-conflict periods next to reconciliation and transitional justice processes, establishing security and a functioning state, economic recovery, and the rebuilding of social cohesion .
Climate change can destabilize existing land and resource governance institutions and associated property rights across the spectrum of landscape types. Transformed climatic conditions, manifested in either rapid-onset or slow-onset ways, can change how land and natural resources are accessed and used as geographical shifts in resource productivity, resource scarcity, and therefore land use patterns occur.