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Emplacement

Russie
RU

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.

Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Russia is a semi-presidential federation.

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Législation
février 2016
Fédération de Russie

This Regional Law regulates relations originating in the sphere of conservation, management, promotion and state protection of the objects of cultural heritage.

Législation
janvier 2016
Fédération de Russie

Article 3 shall be amended to add the following wording: “Elaboration of land-use planning projects shall be performed with the consideration of accessibility to the objects of social, engineering and transport infrastructure for disabled persons and low-mobility groups of the population”.

Amends: Regional Law No. 141-4-ZKO “On land-use planning projects. (2008-11-07)

Réglementations
janvier 2016
Fédération de Russie

This Regional Decree establishes the modalities of performance of municipal land control by local government. Municipal land control shall be conducted in the form of ordinary and extraordinary inspections of legal persons and individual entrepreneurs.

Législation
janvier 2016
Fédération de Russie

This Regional Law lists municipal districts where plots of public or municipal land plots free of charge to citizens for individual residential housing construction or for family farming. It establishes categories of specialists working in rural areas that shall be eligible to such land transfer for the maximum period of six years.

Législation
janvier 2016
Fédération de Russie

This Regional Law sets forth a series of arrangements for state support of smallholders (family subsistence farming) with a view of increase of employment and improvement of economic conditions of rural population, promotion of regional food market, and delimits plenary powers of state bodies in the aforesaid sphere.

Législation
janvier 2016
Fédération de Russie

Article 6 shall be amended to add the following wording: “Regional government shall be competent authority in land valuation of the plots of land with undelimited public property, in the process of conclusion of purchase and sale contracts of the aforesaid plots of land without tender”.

Amends: Regional Law No. 886 VH-I “On land”. (2009-07-10)

Législation
janvier 2016
Fédération de Russie

Article 16 shall be amended to add the following wording: “Regional Government shall be competent authority to declare natural complexes and nature monuments regional protected areas and, in case of necessity, land plots and waterbodies can be expropriated for public needs in accordance with civil, land and water legislation”.

Législation
décembre 2015
Europe
Europe orientale
Fédération de Russie

This Regional Law transfers to local government some plenary powers related to governance of plots of urban public land with undelimited ownership in case of availability of validated land-use planning scheme, except for cases envisaged by federal legislation on roads and road-related activities.

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