Crop ontology: integration of standard variables | Land Portal

Informations sur la ressource

Date of publication: 
décembre 2016
Resource Language: 
ISBN / Resource ID: 
License of the resource: 

The Crop Ontology (CO, is a resource of the Integrated Breeding Platform (IBP, providing breeders with crop specific terms for fieldbook edition and data annotation. Until Mai 2015, a plant phenotype was annotated with 3 CO identifiers for the trait, the method and the scale, respectively. Yet, breeders’ fieldbook and most phenotypic databases are designed to annotate a datapoint with only one identifier. To meet the need of providing one single identifier to an observation variable, the CO and IBP teams have worked on integrating the notion of variable into the CO. This has led to a thorough revision of the structure of the Trait Dictionary (TD) template. The TD template is a user-friendly xls file that is used to submit terms to CO which are then stored in the IBP Breeding Management System and other information systems (NextGen, Agtrials…).

The most notable changes to the TD template are the addition of the term type “variable” and the decomposition of a trait into an entity and an attribute so as to formalize the trait definition and to foster the mapping with external ontologies (TO, PO, PATO, CHEBI, EO, PDO, GO…). Guidelines document how to post-compose variables.

Along with the partners, the CO and IBP team have been working on formatting and curating the TD of pigeonpea (ICRISAT), cowpea (IITA), wheat (CIMMYT), groundnut (ICRISAT/USDA), yam (IITA), chickpea (ICRISAT), lentil (ICARDA), cassava (IITA), soybean (IITA/USDA), common bean (CIAT), rice (IRRI), pearl millet (ICRISAT), sorghum (CIRAD/ICRISAT), and maize (CIMMYT).

Auteurs et éditeurs

Author(s), editor(s), contributor(s): 

Guerrero, A.F.
Hash, C.T.
Hualla, V.
Inoussa, D.
Kalberer, S.R.
Valette, L.
Pietragalla, J.
Laporte, M-A.
Afolabi, A.
Boukar, O.
Cannon, S.B.
Diers, D.W.
Dreher, K.A.
Gaur, P.M.
Kondombo-Barro, C.
Kumar, S.
Lopez-Montes, A.
Menda, N.
Nelson, R.
Ofodile, S.
Patil, S.
Prasad, P.
Rajendran, K.
Rami, J-F.
Rathore, A.
Sackville Hamilton, N.R.
Reinhard, S.
Teme, N.
Weltzien-Rattunde, E.
Arnaud, E.
Shrestha, R.
Integrated Breeding Platform
Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research
Institut National pour l'Etude et la Recherche Agronomiques (Burkina Faso)
University of Illinois
Carnegie Institution for Science
Institut d'Economie Rurale (Mali)

Corporate Author(s): 
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture logo

The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is a non-profit institution that generates agricultural innovations to meet Africa’s most pressing challenges of hunger, malnutrition, poverty, and natural resource degradation. Working with various partners across sub-Saharan Africa, we improve livelihoods, enhance food and nutrition security, increase employment, and preserve natural resource integrity.

Bioversity International is a global research-for-development organization. We have a vision – that agricultural biodiversity nourishes people and sustains the planet.

We deliver scientific evidence, management practices and policy options to use and safeguard agricultural and tree biodiversity to attain sustainable global food and nutrition security.

We work with partners in low-income countries in different regions where agricultural and tree biodiversity can contribute to improved nutrition, resilience, productivity and climate change adaptation.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics logo

The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an international non-profit organization that undertakes scientific research for development.

Our approach is through partnerships and with an Inclusive Market Oriented Development.

Partnerships are critical as ICRISAT takes a catalyst role to help rural communities develop their own solutions and engage

the actors needed to bring the vision to reality.


To reduce hunger and poverty, and improve human nutrition in the tropics through research aimed at increasing the eco-efficiency of agriculture.


CIAT’s staff includes about 200 scientists. Supported by a wide array of donors, the Center collaborates with hundreds of partners to conduct high-quality research and translate the results into development impact. A Board of Trustees provides oversight of CIAT’s research and financial management.


USAID's Development Experience Clearinghouse (DEC), the largest online resource for USAID-funded technical and project materials, makes nearly 200,000 items available for review or download, and continuously grows with more than 1000 items added each month. 

The DEC holds USAID's institutional memory, spanning over 50 years; including documents, images, video and audio materials. The DEC collects research reports, evaluations and assessments, contract information, tutorials, policy and planning documents, activity information sheets, and training materials.

International Potato Center logo

The International Potato Center, known by its Spanish acronym CIP, was founded in 1971 as a root and tuber research-for-development institution delivering sustainable solutions to the pressing world problems of hunger, poverty, and the degradation of natural resources. CIP is truly a global center, with headquarters in Lima, Peru and offices in 20 developing countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Working closely with our partners, CIP seeks to achieve food security, increased well-being, and gender equity for poor people in the developing world.

CIRAD is a French research centre working with developing countries to tackle international agricultural and development issues.

Fournisseur de données


CGIAR is the only worldwide partnership addressing agricultural research for development, whose work contributes to the global effort to tackle poverty, hunger and major nutrition imbalances, and environmental degradation.

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