SDGs: Indicator 5.a.1 | Land Portal

The first part of the indicator focuses on the incidence of people with ownership of secure rights over land, while the second part focuses on the gender parity and the extent to which women are disadvantaged in terms of ownership or use rights over agricultural land.  

The focus of this indicator is on agricultural land, which is commonly viewed as a critical resource for ensuring poverty reduction in many developing countries.

According to the SDG Tier Classification Chart,  SDG indicator 5.a.1 was reclassified from Tier III to Tier II status by the Inter-Agency Expert Group on the SDGs (IAEG- SDGs).

 

What is the method for measuring this indicator?

The indicator monitors ownership and rights over land and is useful in framing gender differences in land ownership and control. 

As such, it gives a clearer picture of gender and social inequalities in land ownership and control in comparison to looking at the incidence of female ownership and control over land in the entire population of a country. An increase in the percentage of women who own and/or control land indicates that progress is made towards achieving equal rights over land among men and women.

According to the UN metadata document for Goal 5, the indicator has been collected mainly through the LSMS-ISA surveys and to a smaller extent through DHS surveys in collaboration with National Institutes of Statistics. The indicator is readily available for 11 countries. Additional, but unprocessed surveys (e.g., DHS, LSMS, national household income and expenditure surveys etc.) lead to a conservative estimate of an additional 10 countries for which the indicator could be derived. It cannot be excluded that many other surveys not currently available to FAO would be potential sources as well, for countries not covered by LSMS or DHS. (See also FAO's Gender and Land Rights Database available on the Land Portal).

 

Why is it important?

The empowerment of women and girls and the achievement of gender equality offers a promising path towards sustainable development, peace, food security, and other benefits for communities and societies at large.  For rural women in particular, rights and access to parcels of land are needed to secure food and income for families, and to make women's voices count in community decision-making.   

 

Who is working on monitoring this indicator?

The indicator’s custodian agency is FAO. UN Women, and the UN Statistical Division.  The World Bank, UNEP, and UN-Habitat are listed as partner agencies.

Thanks to a fruitful cooperation with IFPRI-PIM, FAO is already disseminating the available data through the Gender and Land Rights Database (GRLD). In the near future, the same data will be also disseminated through FAO’s Rural Livelihood Monitoring (RLM) platform. The new World Program for Agricultural Census (WCA 2020) has proposed the collection of land ownership data disaggregated by sex as a supplementary item. Furthermore, the FAO Statistics Division is starting a project called Agricultural Integrated Surveys (AGRIS) through which methodological guidelines will be provided to countries on how to conduct farm surveys (i.e. key indicators to collect, definitions, methods for data collection, periodicity), and effort will also be made to support countries in the actual implementation of the farm surveys. By doing so, the availability of this indicator will increase substantially in the future.

 

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This indicator is taken from the OECD the Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB). It is and index ranging from 0 to 1.

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 1)

Indicators

Men with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land (out of total agricultural population), in percentage.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

People with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land (out of total agricultural population), in percentage.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure (%).

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Women with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land (out of total agricultural population), in percentage.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Other related indicators

This indicator is a sub-component of the Discriminatory Family Code Indicator and measures whether daughters and sons have equal inheritance rights.

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 1)

This indicator was a sub-component of the Discriminatory Family Code Index in the Gender Institutions and Development Database in the 2009 edition.

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 1)

Distribution of agricultural land area owned by sex (female - share%) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Distribution of agricultural landowners by sex (female - share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Formal recognition of women's right measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Women's property rights are recorded (i) urban (ii) rural measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Women's property rights to land are equal to men's (i) in law and (ii) in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Goal 5: Gender equality
Target 5.a: Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws

Indicator details

Status: 
Tier 2

The indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data is not regularly produced by countries.

Custodian agency: 
Partners: 

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. We are not a bank in the ordinary sense but a unique partnership to reduce poverty and support development.

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