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Corruption in land governance is commonly defined as the abuse of entrusted power for private gain while carrying out the functions of land administration and land management. When land investors target countries with weak governance, the risk of corruption is high [1][2]. Likewise, corruption is more likely to occur when local elites are able to manipulate their country’s land governance systems for their own benefit [3]. Whether it’s an opaque deal between private investors and local authorities, citizens having to pay bribes during land administration processes, unaccountable urban planning, or customary laws that deny women their land rights, land corruption hits poor and marginalised men and women hardest [4][5][6]. Around the world, one in five people report that they have paid a bribe for land services in recent years; in Africa, almost every second client of land administration services has been affected [7]. In addition to this, millions of men and women bear the brunt of political and grand corruption in relation to land: when they are not involved in decision-making on land deals, their land is grabbed, or expropriated, and/or they are inadequately compensated for their land.

For men and women, limited access to information, limited participation in decision-making, complex laws and procedures regulating land ownership, and insufficient access to justice are some of the driving forces behind land corruption, while the insufficient capacity of local land offices and traditional institutions makes it more difficult for officials to support good governance practices. Limited anti-corruption oversight by independent bodies and a perceived lack of consequences for abusing power in land management and administration processes also enable a climate of corruption.

At the individual and community level, the effects of land corruption include insecure tenure, food insecurity, a barrier to socio-economic development, an increased risk of conflict, and a threat to traditional ways of life [8]. In many countries, the continued presence of land corruption exacts a toll on national economies and stands in the way of achieving many of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Selected indicators on Land & Corruption

Control of corruption captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as "capture" of the state b

Measurement unit: 
Index (-2.5; 2.5)

The Corruption Perceptions Index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions of business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector.

Measurement unit: 
Rank

The Corruption Perceptions Index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions of business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector.

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 100)

This indicator presents the score of the "Land Owership" component of the Global Open Data Index (GODI) 2016/2017. 

Measurement unit: 
Index (0; 100)

This indicator measures the weghted proportion (%) of respondants who have been requested to paid a bribe, among those who contacted land services.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Public land transactions conducted openly & transparently measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Rule of law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the poli

Measurement unit: 
Index (-2.5; 2.5)

The world at a glance: incidence of bribing in the land sector

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This indicator measures the weghted proportion (%) of respondants who have been requested to paid a bribe, among those who contacted land services.

Measurement unit: 
1'000 Ha

Country Ranking - Corruption Perception Index

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The Corruption Perceptions Index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions of business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector.

Measurement unit: 
Rank

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

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