The purpose of the present Act is to transfer control over Crown lands and natural resources from the federal government to the Province of Alberta. Section 2 of the Act confirms the Agreement set out in the Schedule (Memorandum of Agreement, made on 14 December 1929). Under the present Natural Resources Transfer Agreement (N.R.T.A.) the Government of Canada agrees that provincial laws respecting game shall apply to the Indians within provincial boundaries in order to secure the continuance of the supply of game and fish for the support and subsistence of Indians. As set out in section 10 of the NRTA, Alberta is obligated to transfer unoccupied Crown lands back to the federal government so that Canada can fulfil its obligations under the treaties with First Nations. Section 12 limits Alberta’s right to make laws applicable to First Nations concerning hunting, trapping and fishing. In Alberta, Indians are guaranteed the right to take game and fish for food - an important limitation - during all seasons of the year on unoccupied Crown lands and on any other lands to which Indians have a right of access. The Agreement deals, inter alia, with the following matters: transfer of public lands generally, school lands fund and school lands, water, fisheries, Indian Reserves, national parks, seed grain, general reservation to Canada, historic sites, birds, sanctuaries and financial terms.
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A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec.