Indicator Min-Max
Number of years
/ Obs Min / Max
(i) Clear rationale for fee determination; (ii) public schedule
Accessible opportunities for tenure individualization exist
Accessible, affordable and timely process for appeal
Acquired land is transferred to destined use in a timely manner
Acquired owners are compensated promptly
Administrative (vertical) overlap is avoided
Agreements through informal dispute resolution encouraged
All relevant private encumbrances are recorded
All relevant public restrictions or charges are recorded
Ambiguity in institutional mandates does not cause problems
Approval of investment plans follows a clear time-bound plan
Assessed property taxes are collected
Avenues for complaints if investors do not meet obligations
Boundary demarcation of communal land
Cases with resettlement are circumscribed and well implemented
Changes to the assigned land use done in a timely manner
Clear identification & assignment of use for (i) forests (ii) common lands
Compensation for land use change
Compensation paid for all rights regardless of registration status
Compliance with safeguards monitored and enforced effectively
Condominium regime exists to manage common property
Conflict resolution mechanisms are accessible to the public
Conflicts in the formal system are resolved in a timely manner
Contractual provisions, incl. benefit sharing, publicly available
Customary tenure rights are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice
Exemptions from property taxes payment are justified & clear
First-time registration includes proper safeguards
Formalization of urban residential housing is feasible and affordable
Free negotiations between right holders and investors
Group rights recognized & enforceable
Implementation is costed, and adequately resourced
Incorporation & monitoring of environmental & sustainability goals
Independent & accessible avenues for appeal in acquisition
Indigenous rights to land & forest are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice
Individual land in rural areas is (i) recorded and (ii) mapped
Individual land in urban areas is (i) recorded and (ii) mapped
Info. on spatial extent & duration of concessions is public
Informal payments are discouraged
Information from investors sufficient to assess effects
Information in registries routinely & effectively synchronized
Investment is sufficient to provide high quality services
Investments selected openly on economic, socio-cultural and environmental basis
Investors' compliance regularly monitored & acted upon if needed
Key information on public land allocations accessible to public
Land acquisition threat does not lead to pre-emptive action
Land available to investors identified in agreement with land rights holders
Land disputes are a small share of formal legal cases
Land information records are easily accessed
Land information shared among institutions; accessible to public
Land policy effectively prevents settlements in high risk areas
Land policy ensures land access for smallholders & EWS
Land use planning guides expansion in other cities
Land use planning guides expansion in the largest city
Long-term unchallenged possession is formally recognized
Meaningful incorporation and monitoring of equity and poverty
Multiple rights on other lands can legally coexist (e.g. trees)
Multiple rights over common land can legally coexist
No conflict of interest betw. Implementation & arbitration
No horizontal overlap
No institional overlap for public institutions involved
Non-documentary evidence effectively used to establish rights
Opportunities for registration & mapping of group rights
Overlaps of rights (based on tenure typology) are minimal
Payments for public leases are collected
Planning copes with urban growth
Plans in line with actual use
Policy exists; developed in a participatory manner involving all
Policy for low-cost housing & services exists, implemented
Policy in place to improve equity in access to and use of assets
Process for urban expansion clear, public, respects rights
Process to improve informal settlements exists
Property holders to pay property tax are listed on the tax roll
Provisions for residential building permits appropriate
Public bodies involved share information & coordinate
Public land ownership clearly defined & well managed
Public land transactions conducted openly & transparently
Public land transferred at market prices (except if for equity)
Public process for rezoning safeguards existing rights
Receipts from property taxes exceed the cost of collection
Record information incorporated in maps and reflects reality
Registries information is up-to-date and reflect ground reality
Regular public reporting of progress in policy implementation
Restrictions on land ownership/transfer effectively serve public good
Restrictions on land use effectively serve public purpose
Restrictions on rural land transferability serve public purpose
Restrictions regarding rural land use are enforced
Rights over & subsoil can legally coexist
Rural land tenure rights (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice
Rural land use changes based on public input, burden sharing
Rural land use changes implemented in a timely manner
Safeguards applied to prevent infringement on existing rights
Service standards are published and regularly monitored
Short process to obtain residential building permit
Sufficient resources are available to fulfill responsibilities
The inventory of public land is accessible to the public
The number of illegal land sales is low
The number of illegal lease transactions is low
The public captures benefits from changes in permitted land use
The registry is financially sustainable through fee collection
The registry is searchable
The total cost of registering a property transfer is low
There are few long-standing land conflicts (greater than 5 years)
There is a clear process of property valuation
There is a complete recording of public land
There is clear assignment of responsibility for conflict resolution
There is minimal transfer of public land to private interests
Timely decisions regarding complaints about acquisition
Timely response to requests for accessing registry records
Transparent process to formalize unchallenged land possession
Unambiguous assignment of management responsibility for types of public land
Urban land tenure rights are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice
Urban land use plans & changes to them based on public input
Use rights recognized even on state land
Valuation rolls are publicly accessible
Women's property rights are recorded (i) urban (ii) rural
Women's property rights to land are equal to men's (i) in law and (ii) in practice

(i) Clear rationale for fee determination; (ii) public schedule measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Accessible opportunities for tenure individualization exist measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Accessible, affordable and timely process for appeal measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Acquired land is transferred to destined use in a timely manner measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Acquired owners are compensated promptly measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Administrative (vertical) overlap is avoided measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Agreements through informal dispute resolution encouraged measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

All relevant private encumbrances are recorded measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

All relevant public restrictions or charges are recorded measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Ambiguity in institutional mandates does not cause problems measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Approval of investment plans follows a clear time-bound plan measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Assessed property taxes are collected measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Avenues for complaints if investors do not meet obligations measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Boundary demarcation of communal land measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Cases with resettlement are circumscribed and well implemented measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Changes to the assigned land use done in a timely manner measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Clear identification & assignment of use for (i) forests (ii) common lands measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Compensation for land use change measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Compensation paid for all rights regardless of registration status measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Compliance with safeguards monitored and enforced effectively measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Condominium regime exists to manage common property measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Conflict resolution mechanisms are accessible to the public measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Conflicts in the formal system are resolved in a timely manner measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Contractual provisions, incl. benefit sharing, publicly available measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Customary tenure rights are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Exemptions from property taxes payment are justified & clear measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

First-time registration includes proper safeguards measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Formalization of urban residential housing is feasible and affordable measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Free negotiations between right holders and investors measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Group rights recognized & enforceable measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Implementation is costed, and adequately resourced measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Incorporation & monitoring of environmental & sustainability goals measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Independent & accessible avenues for appeal in acquisition measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Indigenous rights to land & forest are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Individual land in rural areas is (i) recorded and (ii) mapped measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Individual land in urban areas is (i) recorded and (ii) mapped measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Info. on spatial extent & duration of concessions is public measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Informal payments are discouraged measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Information from investors sufficient to assess effects measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Information in registries routinely & effectively synchronized measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Investment is sufficient to provide high quality services measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Investments selected openly on economic, socio-cultural and environmental basis measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Investors' compliance regularly monitored & acted upon if needed measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Key information on public land allocations accessible to public measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land acquisition threat does not lead to pre-emptive action measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land available to investors identified in agreement with land rights holders measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land disputes are a small share of formal legal cases measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land information records are easily accessed measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land information shared among institutions; accessible to public measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land policy effectively prevents settlements in high risk areas measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land policy ensures land access for smallholders & EWS measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land use planning guides expansion in other cities measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Land use planning guides expansion in the largest city measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Long-term unchallenged possession is formally recognized measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Meaningful incorporation and monitoring of equity and poverty measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Multiple rights on other lands can legally coexist (e.g. trees) measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Multiple rights over common land can legally coexist measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

No conflict of interest between Implementation & arbitration, measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

No horizontal overlap, measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

No institional overlap for public institutions involved measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Non-documentary evidence effectively used to establish rights measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Opportunities for registration & mapping of group rights measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Overlaps of rights (based on tenure typology) are minimal measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Payments for public leases are collected measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Planning copes with urban growth measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Plans in line with actual use measured on a scale from A - which stands fro good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Policy exists; developed in a participatory manner involving all measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Policy for low-cost housing & services exists, implemented measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Policy in place to improve equity in access to and use of assets measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Process for urban expansion clear, public, respects rights measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Process to improve informal settlements exists measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Property holders to pay property tax are listed on the tax roll measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Provisions for residential building permits appropriate measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Public bodies involved share information & coordinate measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Public land ownership clearly defined & well managed measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Public land transactions conducted openly & transparently measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Public land transferred at market prices (except if for equity) measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Public process for rezoning safeguards existing rights measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Receipts from property taxes exceed the cost of collection measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Record information incorporated in maps and reflects reality measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Registries information is up-to-date and reflect ground reality measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Regular public reporting of progress in policy implementation measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Restrictions on land ownership/transfer effectively serve public good measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Restrictions on land use effectively serve public purpose measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Restrictions on rural land transferability serve public purpose measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Restrictions regarding rural land use are enforced measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Rights over & subsoil can legally coexist measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Rural land tenure rights (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Rural land use changes based on public input, burden sharing measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Rural land use changes implemented in a timely manner measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Safeguards applied to prevent infringement on existing rights measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Service standards are published and regularly monitored measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Short process to obtain residential building permit measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Sufficient resources are available to fulfill responsibilities measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

The inventory of public land is accessible to the public measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

The number of illegal land sales is low measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

The number of illegal lease transactions is low measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

The public captures benefits from changes in permitted land use measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

The registry is financially sustainable through fee collection measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

The registry is searchable measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

The total cost of registering a property transfer is low measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

There are few long-standing land conflicts (greater than 5 years) measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

There is a clear process of property valuation measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

There is a complete recording of public land measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

There is clear assignment of responsibility for conflict resolution measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

There is minimal transfer of public land to private interests measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Timely decisions regarding complaints about acquisition measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Timely response to requests for accessing registry records measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Transparent process to formalize unchallenged land possession measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Unambiguous assignment of management responsibility for types of public land measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Urban land tenure rights are (i) recognized and (ii) protected in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Urban land use plans & changes to them based on public input measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Use rights recognized even on state land measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Valuation rolls are publicly accessible measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Women's property rights are recorded (i) urban (ii) rural measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)

Women's property rights to land are equal to men's (i) in law and (ii) in practice measured on a scale from A - which stands for good practices - to D - reflecting weak practices.

Measurement unit: 
Index (A; D)
Intergovernmental or Multilateral organization

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. We are not a bank in the ordinary sense but a unique partnership to reduce poverty and support development.

Share this page