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Proper consideration of land means that companies need to be ready to reduce concession sizes, adjust pre-conceived business plans and consider how to introduce more inclusive business models that do not require land acquisitionNumerous large-scale agricultural investments have been over-ambitious and some have ultimately failed. Recent pilot projects show how companies can reduce planned size of plantations to accommodate community land rights, and adopt more inclusive approaches with greater participation by out-growers and support diversified community-based businesses that strengthen livelihoods and food security.

Highlighted Tools & Resources


Land governance and inclusive business in agriculture: advancing the debate

This report reviews the idea of inclusiveness in agricultural investments and analyses what ‘inclusiveness’ means to different value chain actors. Read more here.


Phata Cooperative sugar growers scheme in Malawi

This report shows how investors and farm business management company Agricane supports a cooperative enterprise supplying Illovo, where members pooled customary land holdings, share 60% of the profits and gain regular employment.


LEGEND Bulletin

This bulletin distils lessons from a sugarcane cooperative in Malawi and a forestry investment scheme in Sierra Leone, drawing on the five pillars of inclusive business as identified in the 2018 LEGEND state of the debate report
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The LEGEND report Investing Responsibly in Agricultural Land summarises the practical lessons of responsible land investment pilot in different settings and describes changes made to business plans and the reductions in the scale of land acquisitions by major companies:  

Other examples of inclusive business models featured in the 2016 -2019 responsible land investment pilots include:

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