It is undoubtedly a challenge for climate policy actors to identify reliable evidence to support sound decision-making processes for tackling climate issues effectively. Still, differentiating between fact and fiction, well-designed and invalid science, evidence- or interest-based arguments is precisely what determines the quality of climate policies.
While selecting trustworthy sources from a seemingly endless mass of information might seem an impossible task, one thing can and should be done: defining indisputable climate facts. A handful of climatic issues enjoy extensive testing and research, and their conclusions are as reliable as it can be. Yet, decision-makers spend precious resources debating the verity of these climatic issues, resources that could be applied to furthering climate action.
In this short paper, the Earth League and Future Earth unravel 10 scientific facts on climate change that should be recognized by those pursuing the goals set by the Paris Agreement, while proposing policies to achieve them.
- Evidence shows that Earth has entered a new geological epoch – the Anthropocene – with profound implications for humanity and the relative stability of the Earth system.
- Earth is approaching tipping points due to human pressures.
- Risks of extreme weather are increasing.
- Rising sea levels and ocean acidification are growing threats.
- The costs of climate change are already being felt today and will increase in the future.
- Human health is at risk from air pollutants that alter the climate, and the impacts of a changing climate, which are decreasing food security and increasing the risks of disease and heat stress.
- Climate change is likely to exacerbate the risk of large-scale migration and civil unrest.
- The world needs to act faster: deeper cuts are needed to reduce risk of global average temperature rising 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. A pathway of halving global emissions every decade is consistent with this goal.
- Analyses suggest that it is possible for the world to meet Paris Agreement targets if nation states cooperate and coordinate mitigation efforts. Carbon pricing is an important policy tool that would create substantial revenues amounting to potentially several percent of GDP.
- Adaptation and resilience building are necessary even if the world succeeds with aggressive international action to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
Authors and Publishers
At Future Earth, we believe that research, innovation, and collaboration can transform the world toward sustainability. We harness the experience and reach of thousands of scientists and innovators from across the globe. Together, this global community facilitates research, mobilises networks, sparks innovation, and turns knowledge into action.
The Earth League is an international alliance of institutional and individual members, who work together to respond to some of the most pressing issues faced by humankind including climate change, depletion of natural resources, land degradation, water scarcity, or food security. The work of the alliance is guided by the principles of sustainable development.
This website offers a platform for exchange on environment, conflict, and cooperation (ECC). It aims to foster sustainable peace and development by gathering and disseminating knowledge. It also seeks to create networks among stakeholders in the global environment, climate, foreign policy and security communities.