Rapidly transitioning the global energy system to renewables is considered necessary to combat climate change. Current estimates suggest that at least 30 energy transition minerals and metals (ETMs) form the material base for the energy transition. The inventory of ETMs indicates a high level of intersectionality with territories less impacted by the historic forces of industrialization. To identify the current global footprint, 5,097 ETM projects were geo-located against indicators for indigeneity, human modification of land, food production, water risk, conflict, as well as capacity measures for project permitting, consultation and consent. Study results differentiate ETMs to improve visibility over linkages between technology, resources and sustainability objectives. Our analysis reveals that more than half of the ETM resource base is located on or near the lands of Indigenous and peasant peoples, two groups whose rights to consultation and free prior informed consent are embedded in United Nations declarations.
Authors and Publishers
Owen, John R; Kemp, Deanna; Lechner, Alex M.;Harris, Jill ; Zhang, Ruilian; Lèbre, Éléonore