This Law regulates social relations related to rational management of pastures and is aimed at improvement the state and infrastructure thereof with a view of prevention of degradation of pastures. Pastures shall be classified as arid pastures, rotation (high-productive) pastures and seasonal pastures destined for seasonal grazing and transhumance. Legal status of pastures shall be determined in accordance with appurtenance thereof. National legislation on pastoralism shall be based upon the following principles: (a) rational management of pastures; (b) availability of pastures for legal and natural persons; (c) transparency in relation to allotment and management of pastures; and (d) public participation in decision-making related to management and use of pastures.
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Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. Soviet policies reduced the number of ethnic Kazakhs in the 1930s and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures.
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