This National Action Plan developed in 2003 by the Republic of Tajikistan is a national-wide policy aiming at implementing the commitments of the Republic of Tajikistan concerning the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Thus, the document indicates the priorities and measures to be undertaken to address the problem of climate change, to develop a capacity for further research and analysis of the climate system, its variability and change, to strengthen the international cooperation and joined efforts to mitigate climate change. The measures indicated in the National Action Plan serve as a basis for planning and decision making at all state levels and in all relevant sectors assuming that implementation costs are covered by further economic, social and ecological benefits and promote sustainable development.Climate change mitigation requires complex approach, which involves measures on: (i) reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and (ii) adaptation.Tajikistan's NAP includes the following measures on reduction of GHG emissions and enhancing of natural sinks of carbon: (i) Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy; (ii) Application of effective technologies and use of energy sources that promotes high rates of economic growth and reduce or limit greenhouse gas emissions; (iii) Protection and enhancement of natural sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases; (vi) Promotion of sustainable forest management practices, afforestation and reforestation; (v) Promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture; (vi) Research on promotion, development and use of new and renewable energies together with advanced and environmentally sound technologies; (vii) Encouragement of appropriate reforms in relevant sectors to promote measures to limit or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.As for the adaptation, two phases are expected: a first phase includes primary possible adaptation measures to cope with climate change effects and support the sustainable national development, and a next phase that will include expansion, probation and detailing of adaptation measures. These measures are: (i) Research on climate change, its impacts on natural resources, national economy, public health and development of additional adaptation measures; · (ii) Improvement of the systematic observation networks and environmental monitoring to revise adaptation measures; (iii) Improvement of the system of data collection, analysis, interpretation and dissemination among the end users; (iv) Enhancement of weather forecasting, climate modelling and early warning systems; (v) Capacity building to strengthen institutional, technical and human resources to promote adaptation in fields of climate and hydro-logical research, geographical information systems, environmental impact assessment, protection and re-cultivation of lands, rational use of water resources, conservation of ecosystems, sustainable agriculture, infrastructure development and health protection; (vi) Implementation of actual projects on adaptation in priority areas related to rational use of natural resources, national economy and health protection.The strategic objective is to develop a set of effective measures for reducing the vulnerability of natural resources, national economy and public health in the conditions of climate change that promote sustainable development of the country. More in detail these measures concern: (i) Natural resources (water, land, pastureland, ecosystems); (ii) Economies (water economy, hydro-power engineering, agriculture, transport infrastructure; (iii) Preparation, prevention and minimizing the risks of natural disasters; (iv) Enhancement of public health in the conditions of climate change; (v) Immediate adaptive measures in case of climatic catastrophes; (vi) Food security and struggle against the drought consequences; and (vii) Reduction of anthropogenic pressures in urban areas.To help eliminate hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition, the NAP determines the following adaptation measures: (i) stimulation of economic growth; (ii) elimination of poverty, especially within communities which are more vulnerable to climate change; (iii) assistance and support given to the rural areas in the development of effective and rational methods in agriculture, acceptable for the conditions of climate change and high risk of climatic catastrophes; and (iv) development of private farms with differentiation of agricultural production.In order to make agriculture and forestry more productive and sustainable, the Government proposes a set of activities aiming at modernizing agriculture sector through: (i) development of scientific and technical support of agricultural sector, including long-term forecasting; (ii) advancing the selection of drought-resistant and high productive agricultural crops with a low level water consumption; (iii) increase of irrigation systems efficiency and application of new technologies and types of irrigation and water conservation; (iv) conducting land-reclamation measures, which include crop rotation, soil protection and limiting the ploughing of steep lands that will help to conserve the humus in the soils under the expected conditions of climate change; (v) appropriate use of chemical and biological methods against insects; (vi) conducting a series of agro-technical and land-reclamation measures to improve sowing areas; (vii) construction of water reservoirs in specific agricultural areas to create guaranteed water reserves in dry years and to reduce the risk of floods and mud-flows; and (viii) development of forest rehabilitation measures in the regions prone to drought and wind erosion.The measures to reduce rural poverty provided by the Nap are: (i) securing the population with quality drinking water; disinfecting sewers; sanitary cleaning of public transport, urban and rural settlements, industrial and agricultural objects; (ii) supplying of rural population with renewable energies and replacing consumption of wood fuels; (iii) improvement of a set of measures on infectious diseases prevention in new climatic conditions; (iv) strengthening of sanitary-hygienic control in urban and rural resident areas; and (v) securing the financial sustainability of households and insurance in agriculture.As for the Governance, the Nap proposes the establishment of an Information Center on Climate Change for gathering, analysis and distribution of the climate change information on national and international levels, and effective implementation of the National Action Plan. Other measures needed are the enhancement of the education system and training as well as informing communities and the mass-media aiming at the improvement of public understanding in view of the urgency of the climate change problem, so as to support the implementation of measures on reduction of GHG emissions and adaptation.
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