The Guidance document for the Development Plan 2016 – 2020 is the result of the first of three phases aiming at the management of economic and social transformation consequent to the new political climate in Tunisia and indicates the development goals and strategies for the next five years, starting from an objective perspective on the development reality of the country. The following phase outlines the specific national, sectoral and regional objectives set up by the development plan, while the final phase consists of the Plan implementation by the central, regional and local authorities in cooperation with the private sector and civil society. Thus, the present document is a basis for dialogue between the country's living forces and a reference point to Plan 2016 – 2020.The new approach of this national document combines efficiency, justice and sustainability and ensures the highest levels of inclusive and sustainable growth.The document is based on five priority axes (i) good governance and reforms; (ii) shift from a low-cost economy to a pivotal role in international economy; (iii) human development and social integration; (iv) realization of ambitions of the involved parties; and (v) establishment of a green economy as guarantee of sustainable development. The management and protection of natural resources is the cornerstone of the green economy and a national priority for a sustainable development to be pursued in a participatory manner to ensure their permanence and guarantee the right of future generations to use these resources. Main objectives at this respect are (i) ensure water security and food security; (ii) ensure energy security; (iii) strengthen the supply of potable water to rural areas; (iv) raise the share of renewable energies in the energy mix; (v) improve the country's energy independence index; (vi) increase the use of purified water; and (vii) increase waste management and encourage the private sector to invest in the field.To help eliminate hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition, the Plan will focus on (i) farmers as the main focus of the development of the rural sector by raising their incomes and improving living conditions in rural areas; (ii) support and creation of new cooperative structures that enable small producers to control the production and marketing chain; (iii) work on reducing the production costs; (iv) stimulating agricultural activity by introducing new technologies and supporting agricultural research and training; (v) intensifying agricultural production within the irrigated areas, supporting large-scale farming, rehabilitating agricultural lands and protecting them from flooding; and (vi) encourage the use of renewable energies to pump water and exploit it in farming activities in the areas not supplied with electricity.In order to make agriculture more productive and sustainable main actions will regard principally (i) the development of use of non-traditional resources by adopting seawater desalination; (ii) divert surplus water from the north to resource-limited area; (iii) promote the reuse of water purified in irrigation to reduce pressure on water resources; (iv) rationalization of water use, especially in the agricultural sector, which accounts for approximately 80% of the available water resources; (v) introduction of water saving techniques and increasing the profitability of irrigated areas; (vi) adoption of less water-consuming crops; and (vii) intensification of water surveys for high consumption enterprises. As for fisheries, the Plan aims at (i) combating indiscriminate fishing and protecting marine wealth from pollution; (ii) protecting biological diversity by focusing the satellite system on large and medium-sized vessels and respecting biological rest periods; and (iii) developing aquaculture sector to reduce pressure on marine resources.Rural poverty reduction will be addressed through the development of the roads’ network in that areas, increasing of electric supply system, combating maternal mortality, illiteracy rates and school dropout rates for girls, increasing the quality of services, strengthening drinking water supply and quality in rural areas.The aspiration to a more inclusive and efficient agricultural and food system will be pursued through an increased participation of woman in the job market and establishing an integrated and effective social protection ground.To increase the resilience of livelihoods to disasters, the government plans to implement the following (i) strengthen national capacity to monitor natural hazards and promote early warning for disaster prevention and mitigation; (ii) provide the necessary equipment and techniques to reduce the negative effects of disasters; (iii) strengthen national capacity to adapt to climate, also adopting an urbanization that takes into account climate change and the involvement of the parties; and (iv) combat excessive exploitation of grazing lands.As for the Governance, main requirements are for a completion of the institutional framework, achievement of security and countering the phenomenon of terrorism and decentralization.
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