This multi-lateral Program for the Development of the Regions to 2020 shall be applicable to the whole national territory and shall have as objectives creation of conditions for development of social and economic potential of regions, formation of rational territorial organization of the country, stimulation of population and capital in the centers of economic growth, improvement of territorial land-use planning, and efficient and rational provision of the population with potable water. The projected scheme of the territorial development of the country until 2020 is a tool for implementing a new regional policy aimed at creating conditions for sustainable development of the regions based on the effective use of the social and economic potential of each region. As a basic ideology of regional policy, a balanced development strategy based on a rational balance of the priority development of centers of economic growth, territorial concentration and managed urbanization, as well as macro-regional development based on hub and radial principles is proposed. It shall be applicable either to urban or to rural areas. The Program sets the target of the balanced development of macro-regions by pursuing a policy of diversification of their economies, ensuring the flow of investment and labor resources from the extractive industry and low-productivity agricultural sectors to the manufacturing industry and high-performing service sectors of the economy, which will increase the per capita incomes of the country's population.In rural areas live 7, 7 million people, of which 79% of rural population have access to centralized water supply. Addressing the development of rural areas is provided in the framework of various policy documents, but the lack of an integrated approach in this direction does not allow achieving the desired results.The flow of labor resources from agrarian low-productivity to high-performance service sectors (from villages to cities) will lead to increased productivity in both urban and rural economies. This will also be facilitated by the implementation of the "Employment Road Map 2020" program. Central state and local executive bodies, national companies, when implementing projects within the framework of the Program for the Development of Regions until 2020, provide its participants with at least 10% of newly created jobs in construction and reconstruction and at least 15% of newly created jobs in the current and major repairs, improvement, for employment on projects in the areas of employment centers. Development of basic rural settlements must ensure sustainable agriculture and increase of income of the rural population. Financial support of local government shall be performed for agricultural purposes, in particular for water treatment and restoration of abandoned waterworks.Development of competitive economic specialization of macroregions foresees investment projects that will be implemented in the following areas: processing of agricultural products (production of finished products in the fields of crop production, livestock, and fishfarming).Coordinated (through long-term planning) urban metropolitan infrastructure development will include building "green economy" by developing infrastructure for counteracting floods, mudflows, landslides, avalanches, earthquakes, and fire protection of agglomerations.
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Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. Soviet policies reduced the number of ethnic Kazakhs in the 1930s and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures.