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Community Organizations Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore
Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore
Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore

Focal point

Dr David J. Middleton: Editor-in-Chief


1 Cluny Road
Working languages

The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore is a peer-reviewed journal publishing original papers and reviews on plant structure and taxonomy (including revisions), evolution and biogeography, floristics, ecology and  conservation, as well as related fields such as horticulture and ethnobotany, with emphasis on the plant life of the Southeast Asian-Pacific region.



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The vegetation of Singapore

Peer-reviewed publication
December, 2010

The primeval vegetation of Singapore was largely lowland dipterocarp forest, with mangrove forest lining much of the coast and freshwater swamp forest found further inland adjacent to the streams and rivers. After colonization by the British in 1819, almost all the primeval vegetation was cleared for agriculture and other land uses. The most comprehensive vegetation map of Singapore was made in the 1970s and has not been updated since. Here we present an updated vegetation map of Singapore using information from satellite images, published works, and extensive ground-truthing.