Understanding the VGGT | Land Portal | Securing Land Rights Through Open Data

Understanding the VGGT

The VGGT seek to improve tenure governance with the overall goals of food security and the progressive realization of the right to adequate food, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, environmental protection and sustainable social and economic development.

With inputs from over 1000 stakeholders with different cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the VGGT were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security on 11 May 2012.

Understanding the VGGT

The VGGT are the internationally negotiated framework to improve land governance. With inputs from over 1000 stakeholders with different cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the VGGT were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security on 11 May 2012.

The VGGT promote the recognition and protection of all forms tenure, including formal, informal and customary and all legitimate tenure rights, including property rights, use rights, rights of passage and seasonal rights. The VGGT are voluntary. Yet, the high-level endorsement and use around the world provide significant momentum and scope for advocacy.

Purpose

The VGGT seek to improve tenure governance with the overall goals of food security and the progressive realization of the right to adequate food, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, environmental protection and sustainable social and economic development.

The VGGT provide guidance and information on internationally accepted practices; contribute to the development of policy, legal and organizational frameworks; enhance the transparency and functioning of tenure systems; strengthen the capacities and operations of all persons concerned with tenure governance; and promote the cooperation between actors.

Contents

The VGGT provide a comprehensive overview of the areas relevant to improving governance of tenure and their linkages.

Part 1: Preliminary and Part 2: General Matters

Parts 1 and 2 of the VGGT are the basis upon which the proceeding parts of the VGGT, on specific topics, should be read. Parts 1 and 2 draw out the objective and nature and scope of the VGGT. In addition, they provide guidance that applies to all aspects of tenure governance and hence also the whole VGGT document, by setting out guiding principles and addressing rights and responsibilities, policy legal and organizational frameworks and the delivery of services.

Part 3: Legal, recognition and allocation of tenure rights and duties, Part 4: Transfers and other changes to tenure rights and duties and-Part 5: Administration of tenure

These parts provide guidance on topics that are common to tenure governance. Part 3, includes provisions on the legal recognition and allocation of tenure rights of indigenous peoples and other communities with customary tenure systems, as well as informal tenure and the initial allocation of tenure rights, that are owned or controlled by the public sector. Part 4, provides guidance on situations in which existing rights and associated duties are transferred or reallocated, transactions in tenure rights as a result of investments, land consolidation and other readjustment approaches, restitution, redistributive reforms or expropriation. Part 5, deals with governance of the administration of tenure, with regard to records of tenure rights, valuation, taxation, regulated spatial planning, resolution of disputes over tenure rights and transboundary matters.

Part 6: Responses to climate change and emergencies

Part 6, provides guidance on the preparation and implementation of strategies for extreme situations, where many people could be displaced, including climate change, natural disasters and conflicts.

Part 7: Promotion, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

This part reiterates some of the principle and process-related guidance given in the VGGT and gives additional practical provisions on how the VGGT should be implemented, monitored and evaluated.

History

In 2009 and 2010, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in collaboration with partners, organized ten regional multi-stakeholder consultations, a private sector and four civil society consultations, involving over 1000 people from over 130 countries. In 2011, issues and actions identified during the consultations helped shape the zero draft of the VGGT. In addition, the zero draft underwent a global, public e-consultation.

In 2011 and 2012, the zero draft of the VGGT formed the basis for three rounds of inter-governmental negotiations under the auspices of the Committee on World Food Security (CFS). As a result of the CFS 2009 reform, negotiations included participation by CSOs, the private sector, farmers organizations and academia.

On 11 May 2012, the final text of the VGGT was endorsed by the CFS.

Learn more about the Stakeholder views on the development process of the VGGT and during the negotiations:

Video: Full individual stakeholder interviews during VGGT negotiations:

  • Angel Srapazzon, La Via Campesina, International Peasant Movement
  • Charles Onyango, President, Uganda National Farmers Federation
  • Magdalena Anna Kropiwnicka, Technical Advisor, Permanent Representation of the Republic of Poland to FAO
  • Milton Rondo Filho, Minister, Coordinator-General for International Actions Against Hunger, Brazilian Ministry of External Relations
  • Noel D. De Luna, Chair, Committee on World Food Security
  • Paul Munro-Faure, Principal Officer, Climate Energy and Tenure Division, FAO
  • Rehema Bavuma, Project Officer, Katosi Women Development Trust (KWDT)
  • H.E. Wilfred J. Ngirwa, Permanent Representation and Alternate Governor on behalf of the Minister for Agriculture, Food and Cooperatives, Tanzania

Library

Experiences and Good Practices In The Use and Application of The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) - Summary and Key Elements cover image
Reports & Research
July 2016
Global

At its 42nd Plenary session in 2015, the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) decided to hold a global thematic event at the 43rd session in October 2016 to share experiences and take stock of the use and application of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT), as a contribution to monitorin

Policy Papers & Briefs
March 2018
South Africa

The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) set out internationally-accepted principles and standards for responsible practices, providing a framework for governments, the private sector and civil society to use when developing policies and programmes for improving food security.

Reports & Research
December 2012
Angola
Algeria
Egypt
Bangladesh
Niger
Liechtenstein
Somalia
Namibia
Bulgaria
Bolivia
Ghana
Pakistan
Cape Verde
Jordan
Liberia
Libya
Vietnam
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Tanzania
Portugal
Cambodia
Ethiopia
Paraguay
Saudi Arabia
Lebanon
Slovenia
Burkina Faso
Slovakia
Mauritania
Croatia
Chile
China
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Jamaica
Djibouti
Guinea
Finland
Uruguay
Thailand
Seychelles
Nepal
Laos
Yemen
Philippines
South Africa
Kiribati
Uganda
Syrian Arab Republic
Nicaragua
Kazakhstan
Niue
Dominica
Benin
Nigeria
Belgium
Togo
Zimbabwe
Sri Lanka
United Kingdom
Malawi
Costa Rica
Cameroon
Morocco
Lesotho
Tokelau
Turkmenistan
Trinidad and Tobago
Netherlands
Iraq
Chad
Georgia
Montenegro
Mongolia
Marshall Islands
Belize
Afghanistan
Burundi
Belarus
Grenada
Greece
Andorra
Rwanda
Tajikistan
Haiti
Mexico
Saint Lucia
India
Latvia
Bhutan
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Malaysia
Norway
Czech Republic
Antigua and Barbuda
Fiji
Honduras
Mauritius
Dominican Republic
Luxembourg
Israel
San Marino
Peru
Indonesia
Vanuatu
Macedonia
Suriname
Congo
Iceland
Cook Islands
Comoros
Colombia
Botswana
Nauru
Moldova
Sao Tome and Principe
Madagascar
Ecuador
Senegal
Maldives
Serbia
France
Lithuania
Mozambique
Zambia
Samoa
Holy See
Guatemala
Denmark
Germany
Australia
Austria
Venezuela
Iran
Palau
Kenya
Turkey
Albania
Oman
Tuvalu
Myanmar
Brunei Darussalam
Tunisia
Russia
Barbados
Brazil
Canada
Equatorial Guinea
United States of America
Qatar
Sweden
Ukraine
Guinea-Bissau
Swaziland
Tonga
Ivory Coast
Republic of Korea
Guyana
Switzerland
Cyprus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Singapore
Azerbaijan
Uzbekistan
Central African Republic
Poland
Kuwait
Gambia
Eritrea
Gabon
Estonia
Spain
Faroe Islands
El Salvador
Mali
Ireland
Malta
South Sudan
Sierra Leone
Panama
Bahamas
Solomon Islands
New Zealand
Monaco
Italy
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Japan
Kyrgyzstan
Armenia
Micronesia
United Arab Emirates
Argentina
Sudan
Bahrain
Hungary
Papua New Guinea
Cuba
Americas
Northern America
Europe
Asia
Africa
Global
Oceania

The guidelines are the first comprehensive, global instrument on tenure and its administration to be prepared through intergovernmental negotiations. The guidelines set out principles and internationally accepted standards of responsible practices for the use and control of land, fisheries and forests.

Training Resources & Tools
November 2017
Global

ActionAid International has been working over the last few years with women and rural communities to challenge commercialization of land, which leads to loss of their rights to land.

Data

VGGT Logo

This qualitative dataset shows how national laws measure up against the international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established in Section 16 of the UN Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGTs). The UN Committee on World Food Security, a body consisting of 193 governments, endorsed the VGGTs in 2012.

The dataset contains indicators which ask yes or no questions about the legal provisions established in national laws.

FAO Gender and Land Rights Database

Land is a crucial resource for poverty reduction, food security and rural development. However, men and women do not always enjoy the same rights to land. This dataset contains indicators from the FAO Gender & Land Rights Database.

The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and F

Data provider: 
Leila Shamsaifar
Map of Donors (Land governance Programme Map)

The original dataset (Land governance Programme Map & Database by Global Donor Platform For Rural Development) retains 821 projects in 144 countries with a total value of 2.6 billion dollars for active programmes and contains information the location, duration, funding and scope of each programme, as well as on the specific aspects of the Voluntary Guidelines it supports.

The quantitative dataset on forest tenure data by RRI currently covers 52 countries containing nearly 90% of the world’s forests.

Data provider: 
Rights and Resources Initiative

Events

Cabbage plantation areas on the slope of mount Gede Pangrango Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.   Photo by Ricky Martin/CIFOR
11 October 2017

Location

Lebanon Room
FAO Headquarters
Rome
Italy
IT
Africa

DFID's Land: Enhancing Governance for Economic Development (LEGEND) programme is promoting learning and innovation through 7 CSO-private sector partnerships in diverse agri-regions in 5 African countries; USAID and others are supporting similar initiatives. This side event will share and discuss early insights from these pilots and explore what can be achieved through these approaches: 

Event
18 October 2018
Global

In 2017, the fifth anniversary of the landmark Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGTs) highlighted successful integration of VGGT principles into national law and decision-making processes across several countries.

Event
LANDac Annual International Conference 2019 image
4 July 2019 to 5 July 2019
Netherlands
Global

LAND GOVERNANCE IN TRANSITION: 

How to support transformations that work for people and nature?

 

Latest news

21 March 2019
Peru
Philippines
India
Global

NEW DELHI - A push to formalise land claims, map settlements and digitise records is not always in the best interests of vulnerable communities, and may even lead to greater rights abuses, analysts warned on Friday.

29 June 2018
Global

This rapid scoping of the Food and Agricultural Organisation Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGT) sought the views of different organisations, individuals and activists on the usefulness of the guidelines for promoting forest tenure reform in support of secure community land rights.

21 November 2017
Sierra Leone

The mention of Sierra Leone invariably conjures images of the protracted civil war and the Ebola outbreak that afflicted this West African country.
However that is not all about Sierra Leone; there are a lot of positives the country can showcase which include good practices in land administration.

Blogs

Village in rural Malawi (©Lorenzo Cotula)
22 October 2018
Authors: 
Mr. Lorenzo Cotula
Global

Following last week’s meeting of the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS), this piece reflects on a key CFS soft-law instrument. It is an edited extract from the article “International Soft-Law Instruments and Global Resource Governance: Reflections on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure”, Law, Environment and Development Journal (2017) 13(2):115-133. The full article can be freely downloaded at http://www.lead-journal.org/content/17115.pdf.

Tools & Guides

Putting the Voluntary Guidelines into Practice: A Learning Guide for Civil Society Organizations cover image
Manuals & Guidelines
December 2017
Global

This learning guide has been designed specifically to give civil society and grassroots organizations a deeper understanding of the Voluntary guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food security (VGGT) to enable the members of these organizations and their constituents to use the VGGT meaningfully and effectively to improve t

Policy Papers & Briefs
August 2015
Global

This guide has been produced by the Interlaken Group, with steering support from the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI). The Interlaken Group is a multi-stakeholder forum composed of representatives from companies, investors, international organizations, and civil society groups.

Safeguarding Human Rights in Land Related Investments cover image
Reports & Research
July 2017
Global

The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of national Food Security (VGGt) represent a new international legal instrument, which was adopted unanimously in 2012 by the United nations Committee on World Food Security (CFS).

Organisations

CFS logo

The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was set up in 1974 as an intergovernmental body to serve as a forum for review and follow up of food security policies. In 2009 the Committee went through a reform process to ensure that the voices of other stakeholders were heard in the global debate on food security and nutrition. The vision of the reformed CFS is to be the most inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together in a coordinated way to ensure food security and nutrition for all.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information.

Share this page