Understanding the VGGT | Land Portal

Understanding the VGGT

The VGGT seek to improve tenure governance with the overall goals of food security and the progressive realization of the right to adequate food, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, environmental protection and sustainable social and economic development.

With inputs from over 1000 stakeholders with different cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the VGGT were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security on 11 May 2012.

Understanding the VGGT

The VGGT are the internationally negotiated framework to improve land governance. With inputs from over 1000 stakeholders with different cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the VGGT were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security on 11 May 2012.

The VGGT promote the recognition and protection of all forms tenure, including formal, informal and customary and all legitimate tenure rights, including property rights, use rights, rights of passage and seasonal rights. The VGGT are voluntary. Yet, the high-level endorsement and use around the world provide significant momentum and scope for advocacy.

Purpose

The VGGT seek to improve tenure governance with the overall goals of food security and the progressive realization of the right to adequate food, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, environmental protection and sustainable social and economic development.

The VGGT provide guidance and information on internationally accepted practices; contribute to the development of policy, legal and organizational frameworks; enhance the transparency and functioning of tenure systems; strengthen the capacities and operations of all persons concerned with tenure governance; and promote the cooperation between actors.

Contents

The VGGT provide a comprehensive overview of the areas relevant to improving governance of tenure and their linkages.

Part 1: Preliminary and Part 2: General Matters

Parts 1 and 2 of the VGGT are the basis upon which the proceeding parts of the VGGT, on specific topics, should be read. Parts 1 and 2 draw out the objective and nature and scope of the VGGT. In addition, they provide guidance that applies to all aspects of tenure governance and hence also the whole VGGT document, by setting out guiding principles and addressing rights and responsibilities, policy legal and organizational frameworks and the delivery of services.

Part 3: Legal, recognition and allocation of tenure rights and duties, Part 4: Transfers and other changes to tenure rights and duties and-Part 5: Administration of tenure

These parts provide guidance on topics that are common to tenure governance. Part 3, includes provisions on the legal recognition and allocation of tenure rights of indigenous peoples and other communities with customary tenure systems, as well as informal tenure and the initial allocation of tenure rights, that are owned or controlled by the public sector. Part 4, provides guidance on situations in which existing rights and associated duties are transferred or reallocated, transactions in tenure rights as a result of investments, land consolidation and other readjustment approaches, restitution, redistributive reforms or expropriation. Part 5, deals with governance of the administration of tenure, with regard to records of tenure rights, valuation, taxation, regulated spatial planning, resolution of disputes over tenure rights and transboundary matters.

Part 6: Responses to climate change and emergencies

Part 6, provides guidance on the preparation and implementation of strategies for extreme situations, where many people could be displaced, including climate change, natural disasters and conflicts.

Part 7: Promotion, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

This part reiterates some of the principle and process-related guidance given in the VGGT and gives additional practical provisions on how the VGGT should be implemented, monitored and evaluated.

History

In 2009 and 2010, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in collaboration with partners, organized ten regional multi-stakeholder consultations, a private sector and four civil society consultations, involving over 1000 people from over 130 countries. In 2011, issues and actions identified during the consultations helped shape the zero draft of the VGGT. In addition, the zero draft underwent a global, public e-consultation.

In 2011 and 2012, the zero draft of the VGGT formed the basis for three rounds of inter-governmental negotiations under the auspices of the Committee on World Food Security (CFS). As a result of the CFS 2009 reform, negotiations included participation by CSOs, the private sector, farmers organizations and academia.

On 11 May 2012, the final text of the VGGT was endorsed by the CFS.

Learn more about the Stakeholder views on the development process of the VGGT and during the negotiations:

Video: Full individual stakeholder interviews during VGGT negotiations:

  • Angel Srapazzon, La Via Campesina, International Peasant Movement
  • Charles Onyango, President, Uganda National Farmers Federation
  • Magdalena Anna Kropiwnicka, Technical Advisor, Permanent Representation of the Republic of Poland to FAO
  • Milton Rondo Filho, Minister, Coordinator-General for International Actions Against Hunger, Brazilian Ministry of External Relations
  • Noel D. De Luna, Chair, Committee on World Food Security
  • Paul Munro-Faure, Principal Officer, Climate Energy and Tenure Division, FAO
  • Rehema Bavuma, Project Officer, Katosi Women Development Trust (KWDT)
  • H.E. Wilfred J. Ngirwa, Permanent Representation and Alternate Governor on behalf of the Minister for Agriculture, Food and Cooperatives, Tanzania

Library

Experiences and Good Practices In The Use and Application of The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) - Summary and Key Elements cover image
Reports & Research
July 2016
Global

At its 42nd Plenary session in 2015, the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) decided to hold a global thematic event at the 43rd session in October 2016 to share experiences and take stock of the use and application of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT), as a contribution to monitorin

Policy Papers & Briefs
March 2018
South Africa

The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) set out internationally-accepted principles and standards for responsible practices, providing a framework for governments, the private sector and civil society to use when developing policies and programmes for improving food security.

Voluntary Guide on the Responsible Governance of land fisheries and forests in the context of national food security
Reports & Research
December 2012
Africa
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Morocco
Sudan
Tunisia
Burundi
Comoros
Djibouti
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Kenya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritius
Mozambique
Rwanda
Seychelles
Somalia
South Sudan
Tanzania
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Angola
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
Sao Tome and Principe
Botswana
Lesotho
Namibia
South Africa
Eswatini
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Gambia
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Ivory Coast
Liberia
Mali
Mauritania
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
Americas
Antigua and Barbuda
Bahamas
Barbados
Cuba
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Grenada
Haiti
Jamaica
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Belize
Costa Rica
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Guyana
Paraguay
Peru
Suriname
Uruguay
Venezuela
Northern America
Canada
United States of America
Asia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
China
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Japan
Mongolia
Republic of Korea
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
Indonesia
Laos
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
Bhutan
India
Iran
Maldives
Nepal
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Cyprus
Georgia
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syrian Arab Republic
Turkey
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Europe
Belarus
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Hungary
Moldova
Poland
Russia
Slovakia
Ukraine
Denmark
Estonia
Faroe Islands
Finland
Iceland
Ireland
Latvia
Lithuania
Norway
Sweden
United Kingdom
Albania
Andorra
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
Greece
Holy See
Italy
North Macedonia
Malta
Montenegro
Portugal
San Marino
Serbia
Slovenia
Spain
Austria
Belgium
France
Germany
Liechtenstein
Luxembourg
Monaco
Netherlands
Switzerland
Oceania
Australia
New Zealand
Fiji
Papua New Guinea
Solomon Islands
Vanuatu
Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Micronesia
Nauru
Palau
Cook Islands
Niue
Samoa
Tokelau
Tonga
Tuvalu
Global

The VGGT represent the first inter-governmental consensus on the principles and accepted standards for the responsible governance of tenure for governments, international organisations, communities, and the private sector.

Training Resources & Tools
November 2017
Global

ActionAid International has been working over the last few years with women and rural communities to challenge commercialization of land, which leads to loss of their rights to land.

Data

VGGT Logo

This qualitative dataset shows how national laws measure up against the international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established in Section 16 of the UN Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGTs). The UN Committee on World Food Security, a body consisting of 193 governments, endorsed the VGGTs in 2012.

The dataset contains indicators which ask yes or no questions about the legal provisions established in national laws.

FAO Gender and Land Rights Database

Land is a crucial resource for poverty reduction, food security and rural development. However, men and women do not always enjoy the same rights to land. This dataset contains indicators from the FAO Gender & Land Rights Database.

The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and F

Dataset provider: 
Leila Shamsaifar
Map of Donors (Land governance Programme Map)

The original dataset (Land governance Programme Map & Database by Global Donor Platform For Rural Development) retains 821 projects in 144 countries with a total value of 2.6 billion dollars for active programmes and contains information the location, duration, funding and scope of each programme, as well as on the specific aspects of the Voluntary Guidelines it supports.

The quantitative dataset on forest tenure data by RRI currently covers 52 countries containing nearly 90% of the world’s forests.

Dataset provider: 
Rights and Resources Initiative

Events

16 July 2020

Location

Online
XX
Global

Acknowledging the centrality of land issues to end hunger and achieve sustainable development, countries have agreed to meet ambitious land targets by 2030. Five years into the SDGs, persistent land insecurity, land evictions, threats to land rights defenders and other challenges show that the land promises are not being delivered.

Organizers: 
Land Portal Foundation
Landesa - Rural Development Institute
International Land Coalition
Webinar - Land Consolidation Legislation: FAO Legal Guide and Its Application at the Country Level
18 June 2020

Location

Online
XX
Europe
Global

Land consolidation is a well-proven land management instrument, which has traditionally been used for agricultural development with a main objective of reducing land fragmentation and increasing holding and farm sizes. Some European countries have a land consolidation tradition that goes back a hundred years or more. It is also widespread in particular in countries in Asia but also in Africa.

Organizers: 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
International Federation of Surveyors (FIG)
Land Portal Foundation
 Promotie_slide_FIG2020.jpg
10 May 2020 to 14 May 2020

Location

RAI Amsterdam
Europaplein 24
1078 GZ Amsterdam
Netherlands
NL
Global

Due to the current COVID-19 situation, FIG Working Week 2020 has been cancelled. However, the programme, all abstracts and both peer review and regular papers have been published in the FIG 2020 Working Week website. There might be some online webinars/meetings, which will be informed in the event website.

Organizers: 
International Federation of Surveyors (FIG)
Kadaster International
Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation
Geo-Informatie Nederland

Latest news

COVID-19 and the SDGs: moving forward after the crisis
22 April 2020
Global

Many governments, businesses and local communities have made commitments towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) but COVID-19 may set some of these commitments back.

12 October 2019
Africa

One of the fundamental resources that is essential for the development and sustenance of people in Africa is land.
Land is very important because it forms the basis of agricultural production in the sub-region.

Blogs

10 June 2020
Authors: 
Frank van Holst
Morten Hartvigsen
Kristina Mitic Arsova
North Macedonia
Global

It happened on the 29th of January 2020 in Bitola in North Macedonia. More than 200 landowners from Egri village gathered in Bitola’s theatre, taking turns to vote on the Land Consolidation Plan. The serious faces of men and women, old and young, were a sign that they may have been as nervous as we were ourselves. The voting on the first majority based land consolidation ever in the country was coming to an end. And then the result was there….. 83% in favour of land consolidation! The villagers were cheering. Our team was overwhelmed by emotion.

10 June 2020
Authors: 
Kristina Mitic Arsova
Margret Vidar
North Macedonia

I was assigned to lead the preparation of the assessments and amendments to the land consolidation legislation in 2016. That appeared to be a burdensome task. The first two land consolidation projects in North Macedonia were initiated according to the existing Land Consolidation Law and the implementation was blocked. The Law simply had no legal solutions for the identified field situations. The problems were many and each was ascending the other in its magnitude and sensitivity.

Land grabs and broken promises on corporate responsibility, combined with government inaction, have led to conflict between corporations and communities in Borneo and Sumatra (Photo: David Gilbert, RAN via Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0)
1 April 2020
Authors: 
Mr. Lorenzo Cotula
Global

International standards can help businesses fill gaps in national law, but addressing issues at scale requires systemic governance reform.

 

Tools & Guides

Putting the Voluntary Guidelines into Practice: A Learning Guide for Civil Society Organizations cover image
Manuals & Guidelines
December 2017
Global

This learning guide provides civil society organizations (CSOs) with a methodology and a set of materials to undertake training on the VGGT with civil society actors from the grassroots to the national level. Trainees will learn how to apply the VGGT to actual tenure governance challenges.

Policy Papers & Briefs
August 2015
Global

This guide has been produced by the Interlaken Group, with steering support from the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI). The Interlaken Group is a multi-stakeholder forum composed of representatives from companies, investors, international organizations, and civil society groups.

Safeguarding Human Rights in Land Related Investments cover image
Reports & Research
July 2017
Global

The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of national Food Security (VGGt) represent a new international legal instrument, which was adopted unanimously in 2012 by the United nations Committee on World Food Security (CFS).

Organisations

CFS logo

The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was set up in 1974 as an intergovernmental body to serve as a forum for review and follow up of food security policies. In 2009 the Committee went through a reform process to ensure that the voices of other stakeholders were heard in the global debate on food security and nutrition. The vision of the reformed CFS is to be the most inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together in a coordinated way to ensure food security and nutrition for all.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information.

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