Humanitarian and development organizations working in conflict-affected settings have a particular responsibility to do no harm and contribute to the wellbeing of the population without bias. The highly complex, politicized realities of work in conflict- and post-conflict settings often require quick, pragmatic and results-oriented decisions, the foundations of which remain frequently implicit. Such decisions might follow an intrinsic logic or situational pragmatism rather than intensive deliberation.
This report documents the violent clashes between members of farmer communities and members of herder communities in parts of Nigeria, particularly in the northern parts of the country, over access to resources: water, land and pasture. It also documents the failure of the Nigerian government in fulfilling its constitutional responsibility of protection of lives and property by refusing to investigate, arrest and prosecute perpetrators of attacks.
As reservas extrativistas, um dos legados do movimento organizado dos seringueiros do qual Chico Mendes foi um dos grandes protagonistas, foram idealizadas como proposta de desenvolvimento para Amazônia e para os povos da floresta, alternativa ao modelo estatal hegemônico, de características ambientalmente predatórias e socialmente excludentes. Desde o assassinato de Chico Mendes em 1988 foram criadas 88 reservas extrativistas (sendo 62 federais e 26 estaduais).
Land is consistently ranked among the sectors where people most often report having to pay bribes to access services, according to Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer. The Land Portal has summarised the latest available (dated 2013) global data here, which shows that the incidence of bribes paid for land services can be over 50% in countries such as Cambodia, India and Pakistan.
Transparency International’s experience shows clear links between the issues of land governance, women’s rights, corruption and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These links are especially prevalent in lower-income countries, where people’s reliance on their land is greatest, and land governance and women’s rights are often weak – as highlighted in our 2018 resource book Women, Land and Corruption.
In many countries, unidentified private individuals and legal entities obtain significant economic benefits from land. This lack of transparency can make it harder for affected communities and governments to hold them accountable for land use decision-making and any sort of violation they commit. It can also leave investors open to risk if they do not know who is truly behind a company they are doing business with.
About the webinar
Corruption in the land sector affects every second citizen in Africa, with devastating impacts for individuals, communities and the development of fragile nations. Transparency International has adopted a range of community-led initiatives, which are helping to amplify the voices of women and men affected by land corruption and push for change to systems, structures, practices and cultural norms that allow corruption to flourish in the land sector.
IN’s latest resource is an introduction to the topic Land and Water Grabbing: A discussion of integrity implications and related risks, which discusses the integrity implications and risks of land and water grabbing. The essay examines the link between land and water grabbing, the people that are most impacted by this, and legal frameworks related to both land and water rights. Land and Water Grabbing describes the impacts of land and water grabbing in Kenya and Ethiopia.
Community Land Scotland (CLS) has today published ‘Towards Land Ownership Transparency in Scotland’, part of a larger study led by Transparency International to test a framework for assessing land ownership transparency within countries. The framework was presented at ‘Land Governance in an Interconnected World’, the Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty in Washington DC on March 20th.
The report was prepared for Community Land Scotland by Poppea Daniel, an independent researcher. It concludes:
Every second citizen in Africa has been affected by land corruption in recent years, according to research from Transparency International. For communities, the effects of land corruption include insecure tenure, food insecurity, barriers to socio-economic development, increased risk of conflict, and a threat to traditional ways of life.