This paper aims to provide keys that will help us understand contemporary land dynamics in these four countries. In order to do so it highlights their similarities and differences, both in the long history that shaped today’s local land situations and in more recent reforms implemented in the context of greater economic openness.
The first part of the paper sets the cultural and historical context, with an overview of the diverse ways that the political authorities and different groups within the region have related to land.
After a brief review of the colonial and socialist chapters of their history, the second section looks at the different stages of reforms that have been implemented since the late 1980s. Having set the scene, the third section then considers the current situation through the prism of four of today’s most sensitive land issues
Authors and Publishers
Marie Mellac (IRASEC) et Christian Castellanet (MRLG / Gret)
France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-8, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations.
L’AFD (French Development Agency) finance et accompagne des projets et programmes de développement qui soutiennent une croissance économique plus durable et partagée, améliorent les conditions de vie des plus pauvres, contribuent à la préservation de la planète et aident à stabiliser les pays fragiles ou en sortie de crise.
Groupe de Recherches et d'Echanges Technologiques (GRET) (French, Group For Research and Technology Exchanges) is a non-governmental association supporting international cooperation, professional solidarity and poverty reduction in the countries of Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America. It was established in the late 1970s.
Its activities include implementation of field projects, expertise, studies, research, running information and exchange networks. The main spheres of attention are: