The Act establishes that the right to administer soil, water and air is vested in the State. The State, therefore, has the authority to: (a) regulate the allotment, use, supply and maintenance of soil, water and air; (b) regulate the legal relations between persons and soil, water and air; (c) regulate the legal relations between persons and legal acts concerning soil, water and air. The exploitation of these resources both by individuals or corporate bodies is to be performed within the objective of the national interest and by guaranteeing the protection of economically-weak groups. To these ends, the Government prevents the creation of monopolistic organizations and draws up a general plan regarding the supply, allotment and use of soil, water and air and the natural resources therein. Furthermore, the Act establishes the procedure for land registration and regulates various rights on land which are classified, inter alia, on the basis of the powers granted to the landowner and the exploitation of the land and its products. The second Part harmonizes previous land legislation with the new regime established under the present Act.
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