AgEcon Search
University or Research Institution

AgEcon Search: Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics collects, indexes, and electronically distributes full text copies of scholarly research in the broadly defined field of agricultural economics including sub disciplines such as agribusiness, food supply, natural resource economics, environmental economics, policy issues, agricultural trade, and economic development.

The majority of items in AgEcon Search are working papers, conference papers, and journal articles, although other types such as books chapters and government documents are included. AgEcon Search will serve as the permanent archive for this literature and encourages authors and organizations to use this electronic library as the storehouse for additional appropriate scholarly electronic works.

AgEcon Search is co-sponsored by the Department of Applied Economics and the University Libraries at University of Minnesota and the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

The site has received encouragement and financial support from:

Agricultural Economics Reference Organization
Agricultural and Applied Economics Association
European Association of Agricultural Economists
Farm Foundation
International Association of Agricultural Economists
USDA Economic Research Service

AgEcon Search is part of the University of Minnesota's Digital Conservancy, which provides stewardship, reliable long-term access, and broad dissemination of the digital scholarly and administrative works of the University of Minnesota faculty, departments, centers and offices.

Papers and articles downloaded from AgEcon Search may be used for non-commercial purposes and personal study only. No other use, including posting to another Internet site, is permitted without permission from the copyright owner, or as allowed under the provisions of Fair Use, U.S. Copyright Act, Title 17 U.S.C.

AgEcon Search does not hold the copyright to articles, working papers, conference papers, or other materials available in the database. Copyrights may be held by any of the following: individual authors, multiple authors, organizations, institutions, or publishers.


AgEcon Search began in 1995 as an experiment to see if it were possible to use the internet to archive, index and deliver on demand, full text working papers produced by university agricultural economics departments. The first papers were from agricultural economics departments at Minnesota and Wisconsin. These early papers predated the World Wide Web and were mounted on a GOPHER server in WordPerfect format. The project was (and still is) a cooperative project of the University of Minnesota Libraries, the Department of Applied Economics at the University of Minnesota and the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association (AAEA). The Farm Foundation and the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture provided financial support in the beginning of the project. Patricia Rodkewich and Louise Letnes managed AgEcon Search until Patricia's retirement in 2001, when Julie Kelly joined the AgEcon Search team. Erik Biever also served on the original AgEcon Search team, providing valued technical services and guidance. The members of the Agricultural Economics Reference Organization endorsed the efforts of AgEcon Search early on and have been instrumental in expanding the use of AgEcon Search in their respective institutions.

Since its inception AgEcon Search has operated as a distributed network, with each institution designating a member of their organization to submit papers on their behalf. With this model, costs for maintaining the system were kept low and institutions do not have to pay membership fees for participation. In the cases where an institution had no central person to act as the network member, a fee has been charged for AgEcon Search staff to submit papers. The first organization to choose this option was the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, which since 1997 has been contracting with AgEcon Search to post its annual conference papers.

AgEcon Search Resources

Displaying 1 - 10 of 311
January 2011

Households in developing countries take various actions to smooth income or consumption as a means of managing or responding to risk. This paper examines migration and land rental market participation as responses to risk in rural China. The authors show that over the last 30 years, there have been significant reforms in China, which have increased labour mobility and the functioning of rural land markets. The authors emphasise that while limitations still remain, the reforms have to date increased the efficiency of the allocation of these important factors of production.

Global biofuel expansion and the demand for Brazilian land: intensification versus expansion cover image
Reports & Research
January 2011

The rapid increase in global biofuel production and consumption, particularly of ethanol, has an associated derived demand for crops to produce the necessary feedstock. This working paper assess the implications of global biofuel expansion on Brazilian land usage at the regional level.The document reveals that most of the expansion in global ethanol consumption outside the US is met by Brazilian ethanol production.

January 2010

The sustainable development of rural areas nowadays faces the challenges of global changes. This paper aims to review the concept of land use and landscape multi-functionality in order to help adapting land and landscape use to the new social, economic and ecological demands. In this respect, the paper utilises the findings of a case study conducted in Bulgaria.The authors illustrate that multi-functionality as a qualitative characteristic combines economic with ecological principles in production and improves the end economic results in the given rural area.

Policy Papers & Briefs
December 2007

The performance of over 500 North Dakota farms, 2005-2006, is summarized using 16 financial measures. Farms are categorized by geographic region, farm type, farm size, gross cash sales, farm tenure, net farm income, debt-to-asset, and age of farmer to analyze relationships between financial performance and farm characteristics. Five-year averages, 2001-2005, and farm financial trends for the 1997-2006 period are also presented. In 2006, median and average acreage per farm was 1,966 and 2,386, respectively.

Conference Papers & Reports
December 2007

Land use concepts for ecologically particularly sensitive agricultural landscapes are often focussed on the attainment of specific environmental objectives in specific areas, neglecting both socio-economiceffects, in particular income effects, and the farmers' income-driven production responses outside these areas.The paper illustrates, on the basis of an empirical study on the land use in the southern German regionBayerisches Donauried, (1) that the farmers' objectives and production responses need to be integrated in land use concepts for agricultural landscapes because of their

Conference Papers & Reports
December 2007

Rice-prawn gher (RPG) farming system is an indigenous agricultural technology solely developed by farmers since mid 1980s. The present study aims to estimate the land productivity of modern varieties (MV) paddy production under RPG and (year-round modern varieties) YRMV paddy farming systems in the southwest Bangladesh. The RPG farming system has significant impacts on inputs used in MVboro paddy production. The findings of the study indicate that more chemical fertilizers were used in per ha MV boro paddy production under YRMV paddy farming in comparison with RPG farming.

Conference Papers & Reports
December 2007

The objective of the paper is to survey the state of knowledge of economists and agriculturaleconomists at the onset of transition and seventeen years later. The "standard" economicreasoning in the early nineties were based on neoclassical economics and documented was hasbeen termed the Washington Consensus. It is shown that the discrepancy between expectationsand reality as well as the evolution of institutional economics has challenged economists.

Conference Papers & Reports
December 2007

Farming systems based on products of roughage feeders are a vital part of the EU agricultural production. Up to the CAP reform in 2003 the EU promoted these systems via a wide variety of measures. This paper highlights the different impacts European, national and regional support measures have on the utilization of pastoral resources across the EU-25. Based on an expert survey and a literature review the paper summarizes the expected developments of pastoral farming systems across the EU.

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