SDGs: Indicator 2.3.1 | Page 5 | Land Portal

Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size


Last updated on 1 February 2022

This indicator is currently classified as Tier II. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is the Custodian agency for this indicator.

Unit of measure: Value of production per labour day of small-scale food producers (in constant PPP USD 2011)


Why is this indicator important?

Small-scale food producers constitute the majority of food producers in many countries. Accordingly, enhancing sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices of small-scale producers is important to combat hunger. Developing efficient and robust food production programs to boost agricultural productivity of small-scale producers is essential to maintain food supplies, increase incomes for poor and vulnerable groups, and feed the planet. It also contributes to strengthening rural development. Together with indicator 2.3.2., it defines small-scale producers and provides insights into how much they earn and produce.

By tracking the volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size, data collected for indicator 2.3.1 enables governments to shape, prioritize, and invest in policies and measures that effectively boost agricultural productivity, drive economic growth, and eliminate hunger in particular for small-scale food producers, including women, Indigenous Peoples, family farmers, and pastoralists.


How is the indicator measured and monitored?

Data and information on rural income, livelihoods, and labour inputs is limited in many countries. Moreover, information is usually collected on household level instead of food production unit level.

According to the metadata brief, sources of information are either agricultural surveys, or agricultural modules in integrated household surveys (e.g., LSMS-ISA) organized by the national statistical agencies, with the necessary support from the World Bank, FAO and other international agencies. FAO has been working on computing the indicator for eight developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa based on data collected from the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) surveys. Results have not been disseminated yet. In collaboration with IFAD and the World Bank, FAO also promotes the Agricultural and Rural Integrated Surveys project (AGRISurvey) which aims to assist countries to collect relevant data on an annual basis.


By Anne Hennings, peer-reviewed by FAO.


Official indicator data

Volume of agricultural production of small-scale food producer in crop, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities. The indicator is computed as a ratio of annual output to the number of working days in one year.


* Select "year" below to see the most recent data for more countries.

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Measurement unit: 
Constant 2011 international $

Other related indicators on Land Portal

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The indicator measures the average size of holdings (in hectares) in Lao. The data comes from the Lao Census of Agriculture 1998/99 and 2010/11.

Measurement unit: 
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Measurement unit: 
Percentage (%)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind.

Measurement unit: 
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SDG Land Tracker

Goal 2: Zero hunger
Target 2.3: By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

Indicator details

Tier 2

The indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data is not regularly produced by countries.

Custodian agency: 

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