Urban Tenure related Blog post | Land Portal
Displaying 1 - 12 of 51
19 April 2022
Authors: 
Dr. Anne Hennings
Tanzania
Global

This What to Read digest introduces three recent articles that take a different view on urban Africa. The publications refer to innovative ways to secure tenure in cities, obstacles to urban agriculture, and bring insights into the agency and opportunities of urban refugees.

Common Edge
25 January 2022
Global

Prindex Senior Land Governance Advisor Denys Nizalov argues that developing large, flexible rental markets with strong protections for renters and landlords can stimulate economies and support post-covid economic recoveries.

Eviction filings were projected to soar during the pandemic. So why doesn’t the data show that they have? JOHN MOORE / GETTY IMAGES
11 January 2022
Authors: 
Yuliya Panfil
David Spievack
United States of America
Global

Since the pandemic began, housing experts (including one of the authors of this article) have been predicting that the pandemic’s economic fallout would produce an eviction “tsunami” that could put as many as 40 million people out of their homes.

8 December 2021
Authors: 
Romy Sato
Daniel Hayward
South-Eastern Asia
Cambodia
Laos
Myanmar
Thailand
Vietnam

Curating land information is part of our daily work in the Land Portal. It includes selecting, categorizing, and enriching information with analysis and/or additional data, graphic visualizations, etc. In times with so much information available to choose from, people are increasingly seeking sources that offer selections of high-quality knowledge and provide analysis that make sense of it. Understanding how partners in the land community are meeting this demand is a great source for us to improve our work of curating, and providing meaning to land data.

Georeferenced Map in India
13 September 2021
Authors: 
Mr. Pranab Choudhury
Dr. Prasad Pathak
India

How much land matters to each of us as citizens, students and faculties, and how much we know about them? Is it too complex to ignore, something that matters to us as property, identity or even as a stratum of lives and base of development, to a handful of bureaucrats, lawyers or surveyors? 

Here is a student internship, jointly designed by FLAME University, Pune and a land think tank – Centre for Land Governance, that shows why land matters more now and if and how students can also familiarise themselves and analyze land issues that are important to their lives and that of others.

During the initial interaction, all the girl students, who had joined the internship, were intrigued by a question specifically asked to them, “How many of you are aware of your or your mother’s name in your family land records?”. This question made them think of women's land rights and narrate their stories around that, which were not much different from the patriarchal rural India. The students slowly started realising the importance of land records in the context of enshrined legal equality. 

Land as a discipline critically resonates with environmental studies, economics, law, sociology, anthropology and political science as well as to applied disciplines like public policy, business management or geospatial technology etc. However, it is hardly studied and occasionally researched in Universities, B-Schools and technology institutes. That remains a fact, despite the challenges these institutions face in getting land for their own utilization and others having issues for their own properties. 

Not one student was even aware of what a land record looks like. Yash, a 4th year student majoring Public Policy said, “maybe we have seen it but not sure what it includes”. Many of them studied Geographic Information Systems (GIS) but they were never aware how that has been used in India’s land record digitisation program and if their skills make them read these records better?

Land is continued to be looked at as a complex and contested space that the common man should avoid engaging with, even when its importance as a crucible of development and asset for economic growth is on rise. Academic engagements can also flow with the current. Generating information and evidence that make policy, practice and interaction with land easier, less contested and more rewarding are rare and hardly pursued in universities.

However, with a week’s training, the students were able to learn the basics of land governance. Once they started accessing and interpreting digital land records, interesting observations came flowing in.  For Rahul, a 4th year student with Economics as a major, it was fun to explore terms like “Khewat, Khasra, Khatauni, Khata and Khatiyan and to understand which is a subunit of what and which is a synonym?” For example, Esha, a 4th year Environmental Studies student noted to her dismay that “Women landowners are rare, and when they exist, they are hardly the only owner of the land”. She kept wondering why women always owned much less land than men and also made their own property jointly with men. Aditi, another student, observed “even in a village occupied by Gond, a dominant tribe of Central India, the women landowners’ scenario does not change.” She spent time separating female landowners, by reading and comparing each name, as no gender column was there in the on-line land record portal.

Through this internship, the concept of presumptive titling, prevalent in India, was also discussed and understood by the students and faculty members. Under this system, legacy records like historical transactions viz old survey records or inheritance records also count as evidence and the onus remains on the owner to prove the ownership. Traditionally, various documents related to land records are created and maintained by different departments e.g. The Revenue department deals with tax and mutation, whereas the registration office deals with sale deed registration and transfer of ownership, while land records and survey departments create and deal with the maps. Many times such offices do not even communicate with each other to keep the records updated. Ground verification process suffers from weak human resources. While comparing the textual (RoR) with spatial (cadastral maps)  records and with on ground (google earth images) situations, students could observe such differences. They could realize how and why such discrepancies and disputes accompany land records.

As competitive demand and financial options around land grow and ‘ease of doing business’ require easy and fast land transactions and dispute resolution, moving towards a conclusive titling system is voiced by the government. In 2008, the Department Land Resources, Government of India, started implementation of “National Land Records Modernization Programme” (NLRMP) to computerize the records and develop transparent data. Later, it got revamped under “Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme” (DILRMP). The objectives of the programme were (i) to have a single window to access both, spatial and non-spatial data, (ii) make the data as true to the ground reality as possible – real time updating, (iii) to implement “curtain” principle where records of the title are true depiction of the reality and mutations are automated and (iv) title insurance.  In their pursuit to understand and analyse DILRMP progress in different states, they not only did get impressed with the quantum of work  done and their online availability, but also had challenging experience around access and incongruity.

For the internship work, the students looked at intra-state district-wise progress of DILRMP implementation in seven states around computerization of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps and resurvey in DIRLRMP website while taking care to check the claims by visiting respective state land record sites, where they are actually available. For a 3rd year student of Environmental studies, Pranaay it was a tough time in accessing usable information from state sites. “We faced difficulty in getting geospatial information and contacting the government officials also did not help as they were unaware of this kind of information”, he says while exploring the cadastral map. Faculties and guides from both institutions, had to extend their imaginations to help students in getting access to and retrieve right information. 

A common finding was that despite good progress of computerisation of textual records, the spatial or mapping component have remained a challenge. For example, Manya and Devanshi, also Environmental Studies students, noticed that “there are no geographic coordinates present on the Bhunaksha site” for maps of villages for Bihar. Esha and Karishma, found some RoR links returning blank pdf files in the state of Chhattisgarh, which was found to be having accessible websites with easy interfaces. Being students from Pune, Sayali and Aditi, were surprised to see Amaravati district doing well where has Satara remained at the bottom, in Maharashtra, in terms of a computerisation  index they developed combining progress and comparing the digitisation parameters reported in DILRMP vs that is available in state sites. 

As they went through relevant government websites such as Bhulekh, Bhunaksha, Bhumanchitra, Bhuvan Panchayat, Census and PMKisan etc. to access textual, spatial records, village maps and demographic, land use and direct benefit transfer to farmers’ data, it was both a learning experience as also a game of patience for them. Pranaay and Rahul had to keep spending hours struggling to get useful information from Jamabandi site for Haryana, while for Esha and Karishma working on Chhattisgarh it was a cake walk. Thriptha, a 4th year student now said “I was not aware of so many Government Departments, their rich data availability and about the land records before joining the internship.”   

These datasets were used  by Interns to analyse the land ownership, distribution and land record matching status at village level. Exploring village specific data from Census and matching with land record data, they could see how caste, gender and class relations impact land ownership and landlessness. Sayali could understand the importance why digital land portals should provide caste and sex-segregated data around land ownership. In a village, with very few land owning farmers, she was surprised to find many PMKisan beneficiaries.

In spite of their harrowing experience many of them appreciated the digitization initiative to map and document such a large country. However, almost all of them were disturbed to witness the gender and caste inequity in terms of land ownership as well as land concentration with a few households in almost all villages. 

As student researchers now they have many insights and opinions on digital land records, e-governance, technology-society interaction and more importantly how government works? Yash, Pranaay and Rahul are now in a position to suggest technological improvements in the government websites that can help seamless access. The cherry on the icing was when Prof Narayanan from Azim Premji  said “students have carried out a good preliminary research at such a granular level. No university in the country has been engaged in this critical area which is tightly linked with the future economy. Congratulations to the team!”

 

 

Law, Property and Disasters: Adaptive Perspectives from the Global South
27 July 2021
Authors: 
Prof. Daniel Fitzpatrick
Africa
Latin America and the Caribbean
Asia
Indonesia
Philippines
Global

What is the role of land law in natural disasters? Are current global systems of land law fit-for-purpose as we experience escalating rates of climate disruption?

India Land rights
5 July 2021
Authors: 
Dr. Gemma van der Haar
Dominique Schmid
Sub-Saharan Africa
Zambia
Nigeria
India

In the second PhD session of the LANDac Conference 2021, three PhD researchers presented their work in progress. We learned about slums in Abuja, Nigeria, about forest rights in India, and about the relation between inequalities in soil fertility, gender, and access to subsidies. Each presentation was discussed by an expert from the LANDac network.

 

Key Takeaways

Urban Green Spaces
5 July 2021
Authors: 
Shaswati Chowdhury
Ghana
Global

Urban Green Spaces (UGS) are vegetated open spaces that provide a multitude of ecological functions that are essential for the physical and mental well-being of the citizens as well as for the urban environment. However, land is an extremely competitive resource in cities that are struggling to sustain the ever-growing urban population and UGS are constantly under threat of urban encroachment. Even the well spread out cities are pressured to densify by the more commonplace ‘sustainable dense urban neighbourhood’ approach that in turn, increases the pressure on open spaces such as UGS.

Urban development
5 July 2021
Authors: 
Dr. Kei Otsuki
Global

This session aimed to generate discussions on different experiences of infrastructure development that addresses climate change in cities. It paid particular attention to new transportation “corridor” development, which has increasingly become popular as a way to redesign the rapidly growing city to reduce traffic congestions and thereby carbon emissions, promote affordable public transportation system, and to make public green spaces accessible for all the citizens. However, it is known that it significantly affects ways that urban land is used, accessed and governed by local communities.

Habitat for Humanity Solid Ground Campaign
2 July 2021
Authors: 
Yulan Duit
Global

The world has changed in the year and a half since Habitat for Humanity closed Solid Ground, a 4-year global advocacy campaign to increase access to land for shelter. The significant impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic fallout are still unfolding. The Solid Ground campaign helped to change policies and systems to improve access to land for shelter for over 12 million people.

Helping indigenous communities secure land rights in Nepal
18 December 2020
Nepal

Written by Jagat Deuja and Rachel Knight for IIED and CSRC. Originally posted at: https://www.iied.org/helping-indigenous-communities-secure-land-rights-nepal

Main photo: Young 'social mobilisers' interviewed more than 2,700 landless or untenanted families and gathered the data that was needed for the government to register their tenure (Photo: copyright Kumar Thapa, CSRC)

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Afesis-corplan

Our vision is of a self-reliant society in which people have equitable access to resources and institutions are an expression of people’s needs and aspirations.


Our mission is to support civic agency through catalytic interventions aimed at achieving systemic change in good local governance and sustainable human settlement development.

African Cities Journal aspires to gather existing and future knowledge in the field of urban spaces in Africa through original research articles, as well as more prospective endeavours of theory and methodology. 

Articulo – Journal of Urban Research logo

Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is a peer-reviewed online journal devoted to the exploration of urban issues through the lens of a wide range of social science approaches. The Journal embraces a multidisciplinary perspective on the transformation of social, environmental and economic issues of cities and city regions. Publishing both theoretical and empirical articles, the Journal is an international forum that brings together academics and practitioners working on urban issues in cities around the world to present ground breaking and relevant research.

Reviving Documentation of Property Rights

Cadasta Foundation is dedicated to the support, continued development and growth of the Cadasta Platform – an innovative, open source suite of tools for the collection and management of ownership, occupancy, and spatial data that meets the unique challenges of this process in much of the world.

Centre for Liveable Cities Singapore

The Centre distills key learning points from Singapore’s urban development journey since its independence in 1965, while creating knowledge to address emerging urban challenges. It shares this knowledge with local and international urban leaders, with the aim of positioning Singapore as a global hub for urban solutions. The Centre’s work spans four main areas:

Research

The Centre focuses on two key research questions: 

cclaf
O Centro de Cultura Luiz Freire (CCLF) é uma organização não governamental de direitos humanos, que surge em 1972, a partir de um grupo que buscava a restauração da democracia, através de atividades culturais e projetos de desenvolvimento comunitário, durante o período autoritário da Ditadura Militar brasileira.

O Centro de Direitos Econômicos e Sociais (CDES) é uma organização não governamental de direitos humanos. Criada no ano de 2000, em Porto Alegre, dentro do contexto social e político de realização do I Fórum Social Mundial que acontecia na cidade naquele ano.

SEKELEKANI é uma instituição moçambicana independente, sem fins lucrativos, de promoção de comunicação para o desenvolvimento, conceito que se refere a sistemas de comunicação em dois sentidos, orientados para enaltecer o diálogo entre os decisores de políticas públicas e as partes interessadas, nomeadamente as comunidades destinatárias do desenvolvimento, permitindo-lhes exprimir os seus pontos de vista, as suas aspirações e preocupações, participando, desse modo, na formulação da agenda do seu desenvolvimento.

O Centro Popular de Direitos Humanos se constitui em um coletivo de Advogados Militantes Populares que tem como objetivo atuar na assessoria jurídica popular junto a movimentos sociais, comunidades e segmentos que sofram violações de direitos.

What is the Cities Alliance?

The Cities Alliance is a global partnership for urban poverty reduction and the promotion of the role of cities in sustainable development.

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coalition for urban transition

We aim to drive a shift away from business-as-usual by empowering national governments with the evidence-based rationale and policy tools they need to prioritise more compact, connected, clean urban development. In this way, the initiative helps catalyse and inform implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the New Urban Agenda, and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement.

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