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Updated on 5 February 2024

Photo credits: A view from an MH-65 Dolphin helicopter shows flooding and devastation in Baton Rouge, LA on Aug. 15, 2016, photo by U.S. Department of Agriculture, License Public Domain Mark 1.0 Universal




Baton Rogue flood

By Anne Hennings, reviewed by Anna Locke, Senior Research Associate in the Global Risks and Resilience Programme at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), and Harry Fischer, Associate Professor and Senior Lecturer, Department of Urban and Rural Development at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)


Climate change has led to rising sea-levels, changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, water availability and quality, natural disasters, and extreme weather events. It is a threat multiplier which intensifies existing risks, challenges human security, and amplifies conflict in climate-vulnerable regions, exacerbating shocks and stresses to livelihoods and food systems.1 Last decade was the warmest ever recorded, and there is a risk that temperatures will continue rising over 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels unless urgent and significant action is taken. While humans have always adapted to their living environments historically, many communities are not prepared for these new climatic shifts.

Although the main source of emissions reductions lies in decreasing fossil fuel consumption, the agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors have a significant role to play, for example, through reducing deforestation and forest degradation, restoration of forests and other ecosystems (e.g., peatlands and savannas), improved and sustainable crop and livestock management, and sequestering carbon in soils.2 Related geographical shifts in resource productivity, resource scarcity, and therefore land use patterns have increased pressure on land for both agricultural and settlement purposes.  At the same time, climate change adaptation and mitigation measures lead to land use changes and further contribute to land scarcity.

The 2019 “Climate Change and Land” report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) highlighted how land tenure, land use, and climate change (responses) are closely intertwined. First, the way that land is accessed, used, and governed is affected by and affects the ability of land holders to respond to climate shocks and stresses, and to make future investments in adaptation and mitigation. Secure access to, and use of, land and property – or tenure security – plays a key role in strengthening this ability and can also underpin the ability of land users to benefit from emerging opportunities in the transition towards low carbon development, such as the expansion of the market for carbon rights. However, there are concerns that such transitions will benefit large international corporations at the expense of existing land users, predominantly indigenous and local communities operating under customary or collective tenure regimes (put link to Transnational Institute).

Second, the adverse effects of climate change - manifested in either rapid or slow-onset ways - has altered how land and natural resources are accessed, used, and contested.3 As a result, climate change and respective response measures risk contributing to a destabilization of existing land and resource governance institutions and property rights. 

Moreover, climate change can instigate a wide range of tenure-related impacts that include growing competition for access rights to productive natural resources, greater potential conflict over the legitimacy of existing property rights, forced displacement, short-term and long-term migration, land and resource degradation, and alterations in asset values of land and natural resources.4 In recent years, many communities in private and communal tenure systems have already incurred significant social, economic, and environmental costs from climate change effects in local production systems.

Key concepts and terminology

In response to climate change, the two major strategies are mitigation and adaptation which both have an impact on land tenure (in)security and, at the same time, are shaped by existing land rights regimes. 

According to UNEP, climate change mitigation refers to efforts to reduce or prevent emission of greenhouse gases. This includes new technologies, the use of renewable energies, increasing energy efficiency, or behavioral changes. Furthermore, conservation measures have become popular mitigation strategies, such as large-scale tree planting projects (e.g. the Trillion Tree Initiative), or the UN-announced decade of ecosystem restoration.

According to the Paris Agreement, climate change adaptation aims to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerability. Adaptation strategies refer to adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems to potential or actual climate change-related damages and losses. Resilience is the capacity of communities or households to resist, cope with, or recover from shocks and stresses and arrive at a state of reduced vulnerability 5. Measures to adapt to climate change or strengthen resilience to its shocks and stresses include improved land use and management practices, ecosystem-based approaches, such as watershed protection, and broader disaster risk management interventions. The 2023 review of different LAND-at-scale projects highlight the pivotal role of land governance for climate resilience.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) provides a particular ‘norm’ for adaptation measures: they shall be gender-responsive, participatory, inclusive, and guided by indigenous or local knowledge. 

According to UNFCCC, adaptation measures include various processes, practices, and structures that address climate-induced natural disasters or other changes. These often overlap with disaster risk reduction and come in many forms e.g., setting up early warning systems for storms, building flood defenses to protect against sea-level rise, planting drought-resistant crops, to the preservation and restoration of (mangrove) forests, or changes in government policies. Adaptation may be initiated and implemented locally or top-down by governments.6


International legal framework and policies

The main relevant international frameworks governing climate change are the three Rio Conventions on Biodiversity, Climate Change and Desertification from the 1992 Earth Summit. Each convention represents a way of contributing to the sustainable development goals of Agenda 21. The three conventions are intrinsically linked and address interdependent issues.

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) aims to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification. The objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from commercial and other utilization of genetic resources. In relation to land governance, target 22 of the Kunming-Montreal Biodiversity Framework specifically aims at respecting the cultures and the rights of indigenous and local communities over lands, territories, resources, and traditional knowledge.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets the overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. Its main objective is to stabilize greenhouse-gas concentrations in the atmosphere. UNFCCC acknowledges that land use contributes significantly to climate change mitigation, including through the promotion of sustainable management of forests and oceans as well as other terrestrial, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Convention on Climate Change also indicates that land use management will need to take measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change to ensure food security.7

Each of the Conventions hold annual Conferences of the Parties (COP) which create and track (further) agreements, e.g. on a number of land use-related matters. Adopted in 2015 at UNFCCC’s COP21, article 5 of the Paris Agreement emphasizes the importance of mitigating climate change through land use activities, including those related to forests and REDD+. In 2023, the COP28 of the UNFCCC focused on the implementation of the Paris Agreement by building on the Climate Action Pathways, the Breakthrough Agenda, and the Sharm El Sheikh Adaptation Agenda in order to drive systemic transformations. Parties have also included many land use activities in their intended nationally determined contributions.

In September 2023, both the Africa Climate Summit (ACS) and the Africa Climate Week (ACW) took place in parallel in Kenya discussing regional climate solutions ahead of COP28. Discussions focused on climate action, carbon markets, and green growth, resulting in the unanimously adopted Nairobi Declaration. Civil society organizations released the African People’s Climate and Development Declaration. Concerns were voiced that the negative impacts of carbon offset schemes and tree plantations, as well as issues of corruption in voluntary carbon markets have not been addressed adequately. Furthermore, the agendas missed questions of tenure security and inclusive measures.8

The VGGT emphasize the importance of respecting and protecting the legitimate tenure rights of those likely to be affected by climate change, particularly farmers, small-scale food producers and marginalized communities. In particular, the guidelines underscore the necessity of addressing tenure concerns where it can lead to conflict caused by climate change or natural disasters.

Mapping challenges and risks

Climate change has caused shifts of climate zones and the expansion of arid areas with adverse effects for biodiversity. Moreover, climate change adds to land degradation and coastal erosion processes. As a result, food security has been increasingly challenged in drylands in Africa, and mountain regions in Asia and South America.9 Both desertification and deforestation amplify climate change effects. At the same time, land use and climate change are interrelated to each other, i.e. land-use change is one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss.10

Land tenure plays a key role in responding to climate change and shaping the transition to a low-carbon economy. Research shows how strengthening land tenure security largely contributed to mitigating climate change-induced drought effects in Malawi.11 Furthermore, land-based policy measures for climate change mitigation such as conservation, afforestation, REDD+ projects, payments for environmental services, debt-for-nature swaps, or the production of biomass crops for bioenergy often rely on land-use changes. If not carried out in a way that acknowledges and respects the rights of existing land users and stewards such land use changes may lead to negative socio-economic and environmental consequences, including impacting  food and water security of Indigenous and local communities and challenging their very tenure security.12 In addition to already existing land scarcity, mitigation measures can also increase competition and conflicts over livelihoods and land, notably in areas with prevalent tenure insecurity, land degradation, or desertification. Studies demonstrate the need to recognize existing land rights and to focus mitigation on maintaining intact ecosystems and existing carbon stocks.13 Tropical forests are major carbon sinks and providing Indigenous and local communities with secure land rights will help protect primary forests and biodiversity.14 However, the sheer size of some carbon credit deals that aim to protect threatened forests e.g., in Liberia, Tanzania, or Zambia, goes along with major challenges. The Liberian government is about to finalize a deal that would sign away rights to almost 10% of its total land area for 30 years to a United Arab Emirate-based firm with severe consequences for the local population. 

At the same time climate change challenges tenure security. Climate change intensifies existing risks for land users, and the rising temperatures and extreme weather events add pressure to land tenure and land use, particularly for smallholder farmers who are already vulnerable and often under financial stress. This can undermine tenure security by making it more difficult for farmers to support and maintain the land currently in their possession.15However, simply establishing formal land rights and titles do not guarantee tenure security. It is also a question of governance, institutional capacity, and politics that enable individuals or communities to claim and exercise their rights. Lack of policy enforcement and monitoring can result in community rights formalization processes that are highly uneven and contingent.16

In cases of already insecure land and resource tenure regimes, such as leasehold rights, unrecognized customary tenure, or prevalent land expropriation by states – which is also a hidden danger of climate change responses -  rural households are less likely to invest their time and savings in improving agricultural and water management practices or conserving forests.17 This may contribute to poor adaptive capacity and resilience in the face of climate variability. At the same time, tenure secure households are more likely to migrate (temporarily) than families with insecure land rights who fear losing their claims if they leave 18. As a result, tenure insecure households tend to deplete their financial and social resources which adds more pressure to future livelihood plans and increases inequality. Poor and vulnerable members of communities or those lower in the social hierarchy are at greater risk of marginalization and insecurity for they lack the knowledge and resources to respond to these new challenges19.

Women’s tenure and climate change

There are two major links between women’s land rights and climate change. First, the increased vulnerability of women to climate shocks due to gender-unequal access and control over land and property. Worldwide, women have limited access to and control over land and hence face manifold obstacles in their responses to climate change. Women are disproportionately affected by land scarcity and environmental degradation as customary and inheritance law, patriarchy, and cultural practices undermine their access to land and their role in decision-making processes. That said, recent shifts from customary law to individual statutory tenure systems can have a countereffect on women’s interests and their safety nets.20The lack of access to good quality land can constrain the capacity of women to deal with acute climate shocks, such as droughts or floods, as well as longer-term trends such as falling water tables. At the same time, women have fewer (financial) reserves to cope with climate shocks. 

Second, tenure security plays a pivotal role in whether climate adaptation and mitigation measures have adverse effects on gender inequality. Implemented in a gender-neutral way, climate adaptation and mitigation can perpetuate existing gender inequalities, or even make them worse. Land rights play a central role in determining the success of such programs, not only the success of adaptation efforts such as climate-smart agriculture, but also mitigation interventions such as afforestation or reforestation programs. The evidence on this is largely concentrated on the heightened risk of gender-unequal outcomes associated with large-scale land use management initiatives, such as those that focus on reversing land degradation and biodiversity loss while promoting carbon sequestration. Women are particularly affected by large-scale mitigation projects, such as afforestation, carbon market initiatives including but not limited to REDD+, bioenergy farming, or lithium mining operations.21 Similarly, conservation projects such as national parks or private conservancies may have adverse effects on gender equality. Indigenous and rural women are at much higher risk to lose their livelihoods or be displaced in the wake of these supposedly green land-dependent projects22

Although women are restricted twofold as a result of facing higher levels of tenure insecurity and their exclusion from decision-making on environmental conservation and climate responses they are more likely to invest in climate resilient measures23. Studies show that women take over key roles in their communities in climate adaptation and building resilience if they have secure land rights and access to loans24. Other findings highlight that due to increasing rates of male climate change-induced migration there is a tendency towards a feminization of agriculture and forestry (institutions) which provides new opportunities for women to actively take part in decision-making25. Initiatives like “Her Land. Her Rights” emphasize the need to address climate change and gender equality together.  

Urban tenure and climate change

Rapid urbanization and (peri-)urban growth in times of climate change, rising sea levels, and climate change-induced natural hazards comes with multiple challenges. Urban dwellers are among the most vulnerable. Often, they have little choice but to settle down in hazard-prone areas with poor tenure security. Several studies show that secure land rights contribute to building climate resilient cities in the Global South26. Accordingly, urban policies need to better address land conversion, land tenure, and urban land markets27.

A resilience-building project in an informal settlement in the Pacific shows how improved land tenure security and land-use planning controls can reduce vulnerability to climate extremes and help implement effective adaptation strategies28. In Dar es Salaam - a metropole delta city in Tanzania which faces several climate change-related threats such as rising sea levels, flooding, coastal erosion, land degradation, and heat waves - the 20,000 Plots Project is a success story. Although the largest land delivery scheme ever undertaken in Tanzania faced issues like exclusion and governance deficits, it has provided land access and security for 40,000 plots in Dar es Salaam. Communities worked together with local authorities and based on participatory decision-making they managed to provide sustainable and climate-change sensitive infrastructure and good service delivery29.


Land governance innovations

Tenure security is a key factor in addressing climate change. Bringing a climate lens to understanding how tenure regimes can strengthen the ability of communities to sustain livelihoods and protect the natural resource conditions is essential. The multiplier effect of well-designed tenure institutions and planning platforms can provide a strong basis for adapting to and mitigating climate change by leveraging the knowledge, assets, and financial capital of key stakeholders to determine appropriate sustainable development pathways into the future. This is even more important in cases of large ecosystems, such as river deltas. 

That said, different tenure regimes need to be addressed accordingly to reduce vulnerability and strengthen the ability of land users to adopt adaptation strategies and make the most of mitigation opportunities. Innovations span from spatial planning platforms to incorporating climate change adaptation measures into project and program design and strengthening local and customary institutions which are exemplarily illustrated in the following.

Participatory tenure-responsive spatial planning allows key stakeholders to jointly anticipate likely climate change scenarios and determine appropriate resource use and settlement patterns30. Such planning platforms can play a vital role in efficiently identifying issues, action and developing positive political momentum for change. 

The Asian Development Bank developed a step-by-step method to incorporate climate change adaptation measures into agriculture, rural development, and food security investment projects31. The bank’s guidelines bring attention to land tenure questions and outline four phases of climate-proofing land management. First, gathering climate change data. Second, analyze how climate change affects customary, statutory, indigenous, or informal property rights. Third, options for reducing tenure risks in the context of climate change adaptation are identified. Fourth, implementing climate-proof tenure interventions. A study from Cambodia emphasizes the importance of documenting customary or Indigenous tenure in this process32.

The Annapurna Conservation Area covering more than 380,000 hectares in Nepal provides an example of governing inclusive conservation. Here, the Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities aims to strengthen local and customary institutions and sustainable, just, and participatory natural resource management practices. Biodiversity conservation and Indigenous Peoples and Local Community-based green enterprises aim at building climate resilience that in turn enhances climate change mitigation in a highly vulnerable area. 

Within large river basins such as the Ganges or the Brahmaputra, the distinctive impacts of changing annual rainfall and glacier melt patterns in its upstream, middle reaches, and deltaic portions requires different strategies for increasing resilience. Among the enormous challenges faced by these deltaic regions are increased flooding and sea-level rise that will lead to further urbanization. In order to combat coastal deforestation, the Forest Department of Bangladesh together with donor support has moved towards mangrove co-management approaches that involve allocating clearer tenure rights for local communities to use and manage mangroves.

In a similar vein, the Tenure Facility provides grants and assistance to Indigenous Peoples and local communities in their struggle for tenure security with emphasis on climate change mitigation, reducing conflict and promoting gender equality.

Data on Climate Change and Land

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the world body for the assessment of climate change hosting the Data Distribution Center that provides climate, socio-economic and environmental data as well as future scenarios with technical guidelines. IPCC’s Emission Factor Database (EFDB) offers a library with emphasis on emission factors and other parameters with background documentation or technical references. However, no global data is available for CO2 emissions by land use or other parameters related to the land tenure-climate change nexus. This is mostly due to a large gap in private, public, or customary land tenure data in most parts of the world.

The World Resource Institute curated over 80 open climate data platforms in its Climate Data Platforms Explorer. This map provides various entry points on different scales e.g., global, regional, country, or city, and data collected by actors e.g., non-/state actors or geospatial data. Furthermore, the map does not only highlight data on adaptation and mitigation but also on energy, forest and agriculture, finance, equity, and policy. This overview makes data gaps visible and contributes to avoid data redundancies as much as it allows to leverage synergies.  

Climate Watch offers country-based data highlighting interlinkages between Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and the Sustainable Development Goals, and hence tenure-related indicators.

To support and strengthen tenure in the context of climate change there is a need for national land administrations to incorporate climate change-relevant information, such as climate-related risks33. National governments need to assess how existing types of land and resource governance regimes will be affected by different climate change scenarios34


Data on Land & Climate Change

The Land Portal makes available for consultation and download a series of statistical and spatial datasets related to land issues. The ones focusing on land & climate change include:  

Average proportion of Freshwater Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) covered by protected areas (%)

Average proportion of Terrestrial Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) covered by protected areas (%)

Droughts, floods, extreme temperatures (% of population, average 1990-2009) 

Disaster risk reduction progress score (1-5 scale; 5=best)

Annual forest area change rate (%)

Above-ground biomass stock in forest (t per hectare)

Proportion of forest area located within legally established protect areas (%)

Proportion of forest area under a long-term forest management plan (%)

Forest area under an independently verified forest management certification scheme (1000 hectares)

Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area (%) 

Proportion of people with legally recognized documentation of their rights to land out of total adult population, disaggregated by sex (%); 

Proportion of people who perceive their rights to land as secure, out of total adult population disaggregated by sex (%)

Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture



[1] IPCC. 2023. Sections. In: Climate Change 2023: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. URL:; Unruh, Jon/ Abdul-Jalil, Musa Adam. 2012. Land rights in Darfur: Institutional flexibility, policy and adaptation to environmental change. Natural Resource Management. A united Nations Sustainable Development Journal 36:4, 274-284.

[2] IPCC. 2022. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2023: Synthesis Report. URL:

[3] Quan, J. & N. Dyer. 2008. Climate change and land tenure. The implications of climate change for land tenure and land policy. Rome: FAO. URL: 

[4] Freudenberger, M. & Miller, D. 2010. Climate change, property rights, and resource governance. Emerging implications for USG policies and programming. USAID Issue Brief. Washington, DC: USAID. URL: 

Hilton Prize Coalition. 2017. Land tenure as a critical consideration for climate change-related displacement in slow-onset disaster zones. URL:

[5] Wong-Paradi et al., 2015. Resilience vs. Adaptation: Framing and action. Climate Risk Management 10 URL:,Adaptation%20entails%20preserving%20existing%20resources

[6] LSE. 2021. Explainers: What is climate change adaptation? URL: 

[7] UNFCCC. 2022. Introduction to Land Use. URL:

[8] TMG Research gGmbH. 2023. Weg zu Klimagerechtigkeit: Eine resiliente Zukunft durch starke Landrechte für Frauen. 26. September 2023. URL: 

[9]  IPCC. 2019. Climate Change and Land: an IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. URL:

[10] Thapa, Pawan. 2022. The Relationship between Land Use and Climate Change: A Case Study of Nepal. In: Harris, Stuart A. (ed): The Nature, Causes, Effects and Mitigation of Climate Change on the Environment. URL: 

Diaz, S. 2019. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. IPBES, Bonn.

[11] J.B. Ajefu/ O. Abiona.2020. The mitigating impact of land tenure security on drought-induced food insecurity: evidence from rural Malawi. Journal of Development Studies, 56:12, 2169-2193. URL:

[12] Dooley, Kate et al. 2022. Land Gap Report 2022. URL:; IPCC. 2023. Sections. In: Climate Change 2023: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. URL:

[13] IPCC. 2022. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Shukla, P. R. et al. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[14] Laumonier Y et al. 2022. Asia-Pacific roadmap for primary forest conservation. Working Paper. FAO, CIFOR, FTA.  URL:

[15] Castro, Brianna/Kuntz, Christina. 2022. Land Tenure Insecurity and Climate Adaptation: Socio-Environmental Realities in Colombia and Implications for Integrated Environmental Rights and Participatory Policy. In: Land Tenure Security and Sustainable Development, edited by Holland, Margaret B. et al.,177-199. URL: 

[16] Diepart, Jean-Christophe et al. 2022. The recognition and formalization of customary tenure in the forest landscapes of the Mekong region: a Polanyian perspective. Journal of land Use Science 18:1, 211-226. URL: 

[17] Almeida, Bernardo/ Jacobs, Carolien. 2022. Land expropriation – The hidden danger of climate change response in Mozambique. Land Use Policy 123. URL:

[18] Castro, Brianna/Kuntz, Christina. 2022. Land Tenure Insecurity and Climate Adaptation: Socio-Environmental Realities in Colombia and Implications for Integrated Environmental Rights and Participatory Policy. In: Land Tenure Security and Sustainable Development, edited by Holland, Margaret B. et al.,177-199. URL:

[19] Boas, Ingrid et al. 2022. Climate mobilities: migration, im/mobilities and mobility regimes in a changing climate. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 48:14. URL: 

[20] Oxfam. 2023. Grounding Women's Land Rights: Towards equity and climate justice. Briefing Paper. Oxfam, UK. URL: 

Scalise, Elisa. 2020. The gender gap: Assessing and measuring the gender related land inequality. The International Land Coalition. URL:

[21] See also TMG Research gGmbH. 2023. Weg zu Klimagerechtigkeit: Eine resiliente Zukunft durch starke Landrechte für Frauen. 26. September 2023. URL: 

[22] OHCHR. 2017. Insecure land rights for women threaten progress on gender equality and sustainable development. 

[23] Feyertag, Joseph. 2022. Land rights can break the gender bias in climate action for the good of the planet. ODI Blog, 8 March. URL:

[24] Wickramaratne, R./ de Silva, R. 2023. Loss and damage to land: Voices from Asia. Oxfam International. 

[25] Djoudi, H. & Brockhaus, M. 2016. Unveiling the complexity of gender and adaptation: the “feminization” of forests as a response to drought-induced men’s migration in Mali, in: C. Colfer, B.S. Basnett, and M. Elias (eds): Gender and forests. Climate change, tenure, value chains and emerging issues, pp. 150-168. London: Routledge.

[26] Oates, Lucy et al. 2020. Secure and equal access to land for all: Lessons on land governance and climate resilience from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Coalition for Urban Transitions, London and Washington, DC. Available at:

[27] Blanco, Hilda et al. 2012. The role of urban land in climate change. In: Climate change and Cities, edited by Cynthia Rosenzweig et al. Cambridge University Press.

[28] Mitchell, David et al. 2021. The Benefits of Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration for Urban Community Resilience in a Time of Climate Change and COVID-19 Pandemic. Land 10:6. URL:

[29] Oates, Lucy et al. 2020. Secure and equal access to land for all: Lessons on land governance and climate resilience from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Coalition for Urban Transitions, London and Washington, DC. Available at:

[30] Chigbu, U. E., Schopf, W., Masum, F., Mabikke, S., Antonio, A., & Espinoza, J. 2016. Combining land-use planning and tenure security: a tenure responsive land-use planning approach for developing countries. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management.

[31] ADB. 2012. Guidelines for Climate Proofing Investment in Agriculture, Rural Development, and Food Security. Asian Development Bank. Manila. URL: 

FAO. 2013. Governing land for women and men. A technical guide to support the achievement of responsible gender-equitable governance of land tenure. Rome; Food and Agriculture Organization. URL: 

[32] Diepart, Jean-Christophe/ Oeur Il (2023). Communities at the Core of Protected Area Management: Learning from customary tenure documentation experiences in Cambodia. MRLG Case Study Series #8. Phnom Penh: MRLG, WCS, HA. URL: 

[33] Van der Molen, P. & Mitchell, D. 2016. Climate change, land use and land surveyors. Survey Review, 48, 347, 148-155. Holden, S. & Sietchiping, R. 2010. Land, environment, and climate change. Challenges, responses and tools. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT. URL:

[34] For methodological guidance, see: FAO. 2017. Creating a system to record tenure rights and first registration. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. URL: or FAO. 2017. Improving ways to record tenure rights. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. URL: 





Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.