This article was published in a book International Law and Indigenous Peoples edited by J. Castellino & N. Walsh. This paper discussed around racism and debates to recognise Adivasis as indigenous in India, policy on adivasis land right, State’s subversion of the Constitutional Provision, land alienation, setback of the land restoration policy, impact of Wildlife Conservation on Adivasis land rights and their experience with self-rule, autonomy and self-determination, struggle for autonomy in the northeast, etc. Varied situations faced by Adivasis in India relating to territorial ownership and indigenous struggle for land rights are highlighted. The paper also analysed the actual enforcement of legislations on rights and entitlements to adivasis over their territories, the issue of recognition of indigenous land rights and its fundamental linkage with recognition of indigenous customary land tenure systems, and autonomy vis-à-vis internal legislation.
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