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The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.

By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

India is a federal parliamentary republic.

Source: CIA World Factbook

Government of India Resources

Displaying 21 - 30 of 138
Library Resource
Act, Rules and Guidelines, Forest Rights Act, 2006

Act, Rules and Guidelines

Legislation & Policies
April, 2014
India

Ministry of Tribal Affairs(MoTA), Government of India provides definintion of forest land as per FRA, different types of forest rights as per FRA, and comprehensive rules and guidelines related to FRA.

Library Resource
Reports & Research
February, 2014
India

With a view to give necessary impetuous to the exercise of titling, the Government of India in DoLR, Ministry of Rural Development formed expert comittee.

The committee shall suggest
(i) A Model for Land Titling
(ii) Its Road Map
(iii) Location for testing the Model
(iv) Administrative Setup required for the purpose
(v) Broad Legal Framework (including new laws and amendments in existing Acts etc.) 

Library Resource
Reports & Research
December, 2013
India

This report is based on the Land and Livestock Holdings Survey (LHS) conducted in the 70th round of NSS during January 2013 to December 2013. The survey was conducted only in the rural areas of the country. The survey covered 4529 FSUs. Some features described in this report are:

  1. Household Characteristics
  2. Household Ownership Holdings of Land
  3. Household Operational Holdings of Land
Library Resource
Reports & Research
Other legal document
December, 2013
India

The statistical profile is a comprehensive statistical profile of Scheduled Tribes (otherwise called indigenous people), produced and published by Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India. The profile presents information relating to some key characteristics pertaining to STs like trend analysis of demographic profile, education, health, and employment status along with their proportions having basic amenities like, drinking water, electricity, and bank account etc.

Library Resource
Legislation & Policies
Legislation
September, 2013
India

An Act to ensure,in consultation with institutions oflocal self-government and Gram Sabhas established under the Constitution, a humane, participative, informed andt ransparent process for land acquisition for industrialisation, development of essential infrastructuml facilities and urbanisation with the least disturbance to the owners of the land and other affected families and provide just and fair compensation to the affected families whose land has been acquired or proposed to be cquired or are affected by such acquisition and make adequate provisions for such affected persons for the i

Library Resource
Policy Papers & Briefs
July, 2013
India

Chiefly an agricultural society, India has a strong linkage between land and social status of an individual. Nearly 70 % of its population dependent on land, either as farmers or farm laborers and it is imperative to address the issues of land ensuring livelihood, dignity and food security to millions of Indians. Land reform was a major policy initiative in the country in 1950s and early 1960s.

Library Resource
Reports & Research
January, 2013
India

Audit of Forestland diversion  and Compensatory afforestation by Comptroller and Auditor General of India. The report provides information on forest land diverted for non-forest use, land diverted for compensatory afforestation, use of funds with identification of gaps and suggestion of corrective measures.

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