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Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved final independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.


A peaceful mass protest referred to as the "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against civil society activists in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure to Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office on 7 June 2014.


Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a "referendum" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The "referendum" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). Although Russia illegally annexed Crimea after the "referendum," the Ukrainian Government, backed by UNGA resolution 68/262, asserts that Crimea remains part of Ukraine and fully under Ukrainian sovereignty. Russia also continues to supply separatists in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized separatist republics signed a ceasefire agreement in September 2014. However, this ceasefire failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on peace deal in February 2015 known as the Minsk Agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. Scattered fighting between Ukrainian and Russian-backed separatist forces is still ongoing in eastern Ukraine.


Ukraine is a semi-presidential republic.


Source: CIA World Factbook

Government of Ukraine Resources

Displaying 21 - 25 of 25
Library Resource

ДЕРЖАВНИЙ КОМІТЕТ УКРАЇНИ ПО ЗЕМЕЛЬНИХ РЕСУРСАХ НАКАЗ 09.03.2004 N 67 Про затвердження Положення про порядок оформлення, видачі і реєстрації приписів у разі виявлення порушень земельного законодавства.

Regulations
Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Europe

The Regulation establishes the modalities of legalization, issuing and registration of the injunctions issued by the state inspectors for land tenure and protection of land for the purpose of stopping the exposed infringement of land legislation and elimination of the consequences thereof.

Library Resource

МІНІСТЕРСТВО АГРАРНОЇ ПОЛІТИКИ УКРАЇНИ НАКАЗ 26.02.2004 N 51 Про затвердження Положення про моніторинг ґрунтів на землях сільськогосподарського призначення.

Regulations
Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Europe

The system of soil monitoring of agricultural land is a component of the state system of environmental monitoring and represents the system of observation, collection, processing, transfer, storage and analysis of information regarding variation of indices of the qualitative composition of soil, its fertility, elaboration of scientifically substantiated recommendations as regards decision-making for the prevention of negative processes and liquidation of the consequences thereof.

Library Resource

КАБІНЕТ МІНІСТРІВ УКРАЇНИ ПОСТАНОВА від 4 лютого 2004 р. N 122 Про організацію робіт та методику розподілу земельних ділянок між власниками земельних часток (паїв).

Regulations
Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Europe

The Present Regulation establishes the modalities of the subdivision of the plots of land between the owners of land shares in conformity with the land use planning project as regards land use planning of the area of the land shares.

Library Resource

КАБІНЕТ МІНІСТРІВ УКРАЇНИ ПОСТАНОВА від 25 грудня 2002 р. N 1958 Про утворення Державної інспекції з контролю за використанням і охороною земель. (Із змінами, внесеними згідно з Постановою КМ N 1829 від 26.11.2003)

Regulations
Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Europe

The State Inspection for Control over Land Tenure and Protection of Land is the governmental body of state administration and is subordinated to the State Committee on Land Resources. The main tasks of the State Inspection are: (i) participation within its sphere of competence in the realization of the state policy in the sphere of land relations; (ii) organization and carrying out state control over land tenure and protection of land.

Library Resource

УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАЇНИ Про створення єдиної системи державних органів земельних ресурсів. (Із змінами, внесеними згідно з Указом Президента N 720/2002 від 19.08.2002)

Legislation
Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Europe

The President, for the purpose of carrying out common state land policy and ensuring rational land tenure and protection of land, decrees to set up united system of the state bodies on land resources within the State Committee on Land resources and Regional Committees on Land Resources and Common Cadastre of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, provincial, district and local bodies on land resources, and rural land surveyors.

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